Evaluation of psychopharmacological and neurosafety profile of Swas Kas Chintamani Ras (SKC) in Swiss-Webster mice

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of microbiology, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur-3814, Noakhali, Bangladesh

2 Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814,Bangladesh

3 Department of pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4 Department of pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur-3814, Noakhali, Bangladesh


Objectives: Swas Kas Chintamani Ras (SKC) is an ayurvedic preparation indicated for respiratory diseases. Our study was aimed to determine the psychopharmacological and neurosafety profile of SKC.
Materials and Methods: Psychopharmacological effects and neurosafety profile of this drug were determined by nine complementary test methods namely, open field, locomotor activity, hole cross, hole board test, elevated plus maze, staircase, forced swimming test, and rotarod test. Male mice (Swiss-Webster strain, 20-40 g body weight) bred in the Animal House of the Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, were used for the pharmacological experiments.
Results: The drug decreased total ambulation and movement in the central region and standing up behavior and lowered emotional defecation. The drug also made the mice to take a shorter time to come out of the cage. Also, animals spent less time in open arm and the movement in the closed arm and locomotors reduced (p=0.003), where a number of rearing (p=0.04) behaviour indicating possible anxiolytic activity.  Also, no signs of anti-depressant activity were observed among SKC-treated group.
Conclusion: We concluded that our drug showed no neurotoxic effect and it also showed some beneficial neuropharmacological properties.


Main Subjects

Boissier JR, Simon P. 1964. Dissociation de deux composantes dans le comportement d’investigation de la souris. Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 147: 103-114.
Borsini F, Meli A. 1988. Is the forced swimming test a suitable model for revealing antidepressant activity? Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 94: 147–160.
Calixto JB. 2000. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents). Braz J Med Bio Res, 33: 179-189.
Dash B. 1984. Diagnosis and Treatment of diseases in Ayurveda (Based on Ayurveda Saukhyam of Todarananda). Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1-5:2578.
Dastur JF. 1960. Guide to Ayurvedic medicine - A repertory of therapeutic prescriptions (based on the indigenous system of India.Taraporevala. Sons and Co., Bombay, pp. 212.
Department of AYUSH. 2014. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India, New Delhi, 18: 149.
Ernst E. 2002. Ayurvedic medicines. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 11: 455-6.
Fisher P, Ward A. 1994. Complementary medicine in Europe.  BMJ, 309: 107–111.
Gupta BD, Dandiya PC, Gupta ML. 1971. A Psycho-pharmacological Analysis of Behavior in Rat. Japan J Pharmacol, 21: 293-298.
Handley SL, McBlane JW. 1993. 5-HT drugs in animal models of anxiety. Psychopharmacology, 112: 13-20.
Hebbar BAMS. 2015. Swas Kas Chintamani Ras – Benefits, Dosage, Ingredients, Side Effects. Ayurvedic Medicine Information, PGDPSM. Bhaishaj Ratnavali Hikka Shwasa Adhikara, pp. 85 – 87
Kannan CS, Kumar AS, Amudha P. 2011. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn. In swiss albino mice. Inter J Pharm Pharm Sci, 3: 121-125.
Karolewiaz B, Paul IA. 2001. Group housing of mice increases immobility and antidepressant sensitivity in the forced swim and tail suspension tests.  Eur J Pharmacol, 415: 197-201.
Keen RW, Deacon AC, Delves HT, Moreton JA, Frost PG. 1994. Indian herbal remedies for diabetes as a cause of lead poisoning. Postgrad Med J, 70: 113–114.
Mandell, Douglas, Bennett. 2014. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th Edition, 39: 1298.
Mishra, Chandra L. 2010. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. CRC Press, Reprint, 22: 626.
Nadkarni AK. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Book Depot, Bombay, India, pp.  1.
Nakama M, Ochiai T, Kowa Y. 1972. Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Emotional Behavior; Explorator y Behavior of Naive Rats in Holed Open Field. Japan J Pharmacol, 22: 767-775.
Novas ML, Wolfman C, Medina JH, de Robertis E. 1988. Proconvulsant and anxiogenic effects of n-butyl beta carboline-3-carboxylate, an endogenous benzodiazepine binding inhibitor from brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behavr, 30: 331–336.
Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M. 1985. Validation of open: Closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods, 14: 149-167.
Porsolt RD, Anton G, Blaver N. 1977. Behavioral despair in mice; a primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther, 36: 229-327.
Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M. 1977. Behavioural despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 229: 327–336.
Prashant B, Shamkuwar Sadhana RS. 2012. Antimotility and antisecretory effect of Kutajarishta: An ayurvedic antidiarrhoeal formulation. Der Pharmacia Sinica, 3: 71- 75.
Ramakrishna BS, Venkataraman S, Mukhopadhya A. 2006. Tropical malabsorption. Postgrad Med J, 82: 779–787.
Takagi K, Watanabe M, Saito H. 1971. Studies on the spontaneous movement of animals by the hole cross test: Effect of 2-dimethylaminoethane. Its acylates on the central nervous system. Japanese J Pharmacol, 21: 797.
Verma HK. 1991. Comprehensive Book of Ayurvedic Medicine for General Practitioners with Annonated Key References (Based on Modern Diagnosis and Ayurvedic Treatment). Kalyani Publishers. New Delhi, 1: 196.
Wall PM, Messier C. 2000. Ethological confirmatory factor analysis of anxiety-like behaviour in the murine elevated plus-maze.  Behav Brain Res, 114: 199-212.
Willner P. 1990. Animals model of depression: an overview. Pharmacol Ther, 45: 425-455.
Yonko DI. 1984. Possible role of brain dopaminergic system in the memory effects of central stimulants. Methods Find. Exp Clin Pharmacol, 6: 235-239.