The Effect of ginger herbal spray on reducing xerostomia in patients with type II diabetes

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pathology, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.


Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of ginger herbal spray on reducing dry mouth in patients with Type II diabetes.
Materials and Method:This clinical trial was conducted on 20 patients with Type II diabetes suffering from dry mouth. The control individual for each patient was the same patient himself/herself. Each patient filled out his/her questionnaire at three different times, (before treatment, after treatment with placebo, and after taking the drug). Furthermore, the Schirmer test was performed to measure the flow of saliva in the patients. The drug and the placebo were prepared as oral sprays containing herbal extracts of ginger.
Results:The mean amount of saliva after using the ginger plant spray increased significantly (p<0.001). The mean amount of saliva after treatment with medication was considerably different from the mean amount of saliva after treatment with the placebo (p<0.001). Our study included patients aged between 49 and 69 years old, (mean age 58.6 years old, and the standard deviation 5.3). The minimum and the maximum periods of type II diabetes were 2 and 21 years, the mean and the standard deviation of which were 8.8 and 5.8, respectively.
Conclusion:With regard to the effectiveness of ginger herbal spray in rapidly increasing the patients’ saliva and satisfaction as well as the acceptability of this type of medicine to treat dry mouths, ginger herbal spray could act as a new, cheap, and available treatment for diabetic patients with dry mouth.


Main Subjects

Alaei A. Systemic effects of ginger on the improvement of xerostomia in patients after radiotherapy for head and neck.Nove.2009, Proceedings of Second Congress of Dentistry Residents.Tehran,Iran.
Al-maskari AY, Al-maskari MY, Al-sudairy S. 2011. Oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus: a review‏. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 11: 179–186.
Altman RD, Marcussen KC. 2001. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patient with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum.44:2531-2538.
Amin G.1991.Traditional medicinal plants of Iran. In: Ministry of Health and Medical Education .Research Department Press. Pp.17-21.
Antonio. N, Kate. T.2009. Oral Histology: Development, Structure and Functions. Noor-e Danesh Publication.pp. 326-355. Tehran.
Baharvand M, Hemati F. 2006. Studying the prevalence of xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome among the elderly residing in sanitariums of Tehran. J Islamic dent assoc, 18: 86-91.
Bahmani M, Banihabib AK, Kazemi B, Hajigholizadeh G, Vakili N. 2013. Investigation of Koranic medicine from the perspective of modern science. J Islamic Iranian Trad med.4: 300-306.
Bakhtiari S, Azimi S, Esfandiari F, Alavi K. 2006. Comparison of the effect of sugarfree orbit chewing gum & natural turpentine on salivary flow rate & pH. J Dent Sch Shahid Beheshti Univ  Med Sci, 24: 423-428.
Bakhtiari S, Azimi S, Ghaemaghami A. 2007. A review of conventional drug treatments of common oral lesions. J Dent Sch Shahid Beheshti Univ  Med Sci, 25: 348-356.
Burket. L. W. 2010; Burket's Oral Medicine. Tehran, Shayan Nemoodar Publication; pp. 229-576.
Dyasanoor S, Channavir saddu SH. 2014. Association of xerostomia and assessment of salivary flow using modified schirmer test among smokers and healthy individuals, a preliminutesary study. J  Clin Diag Res, 8: 211-213.
Fayaz A, Attar M. 2003. Comparing the clinical effects of saliva substitute (artificial saliva) and natural mucinogen in patients with xerostomia. J Dent Sch Shahid Beheshti Univ  Med Sci, 21:755-765.
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Sharif B. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Ethonopharmacology, 89: 67-71.
Handiadka R, Rajeev AG, Palatty Pl, Arora R, Baliga MS. 2012. Zingiber officinale (Ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy. J Altern Complement med, 18: 440-444.
Khovidhunkit SP, Suwantuntula T, Thaweboon S, Mitrirattanakul S, Chomkhakhai U, Khovidhunkit W. 2009. Xerostomia, hyposalivation and microbiota in type 2 diabetic patients:a preliminary study.  J med association thai, 92: 1220-1228.
Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Srihan N, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. 2007. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflamatory mediator’s production. Phytomed, 141:123-128.
Mallikarjuna K, Sahitya Chetan P, Sathyavelu Reddy K, Rajendra W.2008. Ethanol toxicity: Rehabilitation of hepatic antioxidant defense system with dietary ginger. Fitoterapia.79:174–178.
Minaiyan M, Ghannadi A, Mahzouni P, Nabi-Meibodi M. 2008. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of ginger (rhizome of zingiber officinale Roscoe) hydroalcoholic extract on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats. 3: 15-22.
Nakhaei T, Azimi A, Ginger a plant with amazing properties, Oct 2012, Second National Seminar on Food Security, Savadkuh. Iran.
Neville BD. 2009. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. shayan nemoodar publisher Pp.463-465. Tehran.
Parsa Z, Ebrahimi SM, Hosseini SM, Nikbakht A, Sedighi S, Salehi MH. 2011. Resorting to medicinal plants as a way for alleviating vomiting caused by the acute phase of chemotherapy. Razi j med sci.18: 33-38.
Patel R, Thaker V, Patel VK. 2011. Antimimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed.19:58-61.
Rezai H, Ginger a Koranic remedial spice: a systematic review. Jun 2012. National Conference on the Quran and Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Riordan P, Witcher J. 2010. Vaughan & Asbury's General Ophthalmology, Teymourzadeh Publication.Pp.446-447. Tehran.
Shirzai M. 2011. Factors cousins’ dry mouth. Zahedan J Ress Med Sci .13: 48-49.
Sontake S, Thawani V, Naik MS. 2003. Ginger as an antiemetic in nausea and vomiting induced by chemotheraoy: arandomized, cross-over, double blind study.Indian J Pharmacol, 35:32-33.
Sudarshan R, Vijabala G. 2012. Role of ginger in medicine and dentistry-An interesting Review Article. South East Asia. 1: 66-72.
Terry R, Pasodzki P, Watson LK, Ernst E. 2011. The use of ginger (Zingiber Officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials. Pain medicine, 12:1808-1818.
Zhou Hl, Deng YM, Xie QM. 2006. The modulatory effects of the cellular immune response in vivo in mice. J Ethnopharmacol.105: 301-305.