Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmacology, Madras Medical College, Tamil Nadu, India

2 Department of Medicine, Pharmacology Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia

3 3epartment of Pharmacology, Sri Krishna Chaithanya College of Pharmacy, Madanapalee, Andhra Pradesh, India

4 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Nellore, India


Objective: Dietary changes playmajor risk roles in oxidative stress andcardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. 
Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) andfed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight andoxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profilein rats.
Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus(200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p
Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H.indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage.


Main Subjects

AgenoW, PrandoniP, Romualdi E, Ghirarduzzi A, Dentali F, Pesavento R, Crowther M, Venco A. 2006. The metabolic syndrome and the risk of venous thrombosis: a case-control study. J Thromb Haemost, 4: 1914–1918.
Amanda Hooper J, Leon AdamsA, John Burnett R. 2011.  Genetic determinants of hepatic steatosis in man. J Lipid Res, 52: 593–617.
Antonio GottoJr M. 2011. Jeremiah Metzger Lecture: Cholesterol, Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Is It All LDL? Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc, 122: 256–289.
Arshag MooradianD. 2009. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 5: 150-159.
Ay C, Tengler T, Vormittag R, Simanek R, Dorda W, Vukovich T, Pabinger I. 2007. Venous thromboembolism: a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Haematologica, 92: 374–380.
Borch KH, Braekkan SK, Mathiesen EB, Njølstad I, Wilsgaard T, Størmer J, Hansen JB. 2010. Anthropometric measures of obesity and risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromso study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 30: 121–127.
Buettner R, Parhofer KG, Woenckhaus M, Wrede CE, Kunz-Schughart LA, Scholmerich J, Bollheimer LC. 2006. Defining high-fat-diet rat mod‌els: metabolic and molecular effects of differ‌ent fat types. J Mol Endocrinol, 36: 485-501.
Christian Roberts K, Andrea Hevener L, James Barnard R. 2013. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training. Compr Physiol, 3: 1–58.
Colin Wilborn, Jacqueline Beckham, Bill Campbell, Travis Harvey, Melyn Galbreath, Paul La Bounty, Erika Nassar, Jennifer Wismann, Richard Kreider. 2005. Obesity: Prevalence, Theories, Medical Consequences, Management, and Research Directions. J Int Soc of Sports Nutr, 2: 4-31.
Dahanukar SA, Kulkarni RA, Rege NN. 2000. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian J Pharmacol, 32: S81–S118.
Donovan McGrowder, Cliff Riley, Errol Morrison St YA, Lorenzo Gordon. 2011. The Role of High-Density Lipoproteins in Reducing the Risk of Vascular Diseases, Neurogenerative Disorders, and Cancer. Review Article. Cholesterol, 2011: 1-9.
Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Nakajima Y, Nakayama O, Makishima M, Matsuda M, Shimomura I. 2004.  Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Investig, 114: 1752-1761.
Harborne JB. 1984.  Phytochemical methods. 11th Edn, pp.4−5, New York, Chapman & Hall.
Hee Hong J, Seon Lee I. 2009.  Effects of Artemisia capillaris ethyl acetate fraction on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Chem Biol Interact, 179: 88–93.
Jeng-Jiann Chiu, Shu Chien. 2011. Effects of Disturbed Flow on Vascular Endothelium: Pathophysiological Basis and Clinical Perspectives. Physiol Rev,91: 327-387.
Ji Hye Kim, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko. 2014. Integrating Traditional Medicine into Modern Inflammatory Diseases Care: Multitargeting by Rhus verniciflua Stokes. Mediators Inflamm, 2014: 1-17.
Keevil JG, Cullen MW, Gangnon R, McBride PE, Stein JH. 2007. Implications of cardiac risk and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol distributions in the United States for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2002. Circulation, 115: 1363–1370.
 Kim S, Jin Y, Choi Y, Park T. 2011. Resveratrol exerts anti-obesity effects via mechanisms involving down-regulation of adipogenic and inflamma‌tory processes in mice. Biochem Pharmacol, 81: 1343-1351.
Kohli R, Kirby M, Xanthakos SA, Softic S, Feldstein AE, Saxena V, Tang PH, Miles L, Miles MV, Balistreri WF, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. 2010.  High-fructose, medium chain trans fat diet induces liver fibrosis and elevates plasma coenzyme Q9 in a novel murine model of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology, 52: 934–944.
Kumar SA, Magnusson M, Ward LC, Paul NA, Brown L. 2015.  A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Nutrients, 7: 2771-2787.
Lankin VZ, Tikhaze AK, Kukharchuk VV. 2003. Antioxidants decrease the intensification of low density lipoprotein in vivo peroxidation during therapy with statins. Mol Cell Biochem, 49: 129–140.
Li W, Shi YH, Yang RL, Cui J, Xiao Y, Wang B, Le Wei G. 2010.  Effect of somatostatin analog on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome: involvement of reactive oxygen species. Peptides, 31: 625–629.
Lyer A, Panchal S, Poudyal H, Brown L. 2009. Potential health benefits of Indianspices in the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome: a review. Indian J Biochem Biophys, 46: 467–481.
Marjorie McCullough L, Julia Peterson J, Roshni Patel, Paul Jacques F, Roma Shah, Johanna Dwyer T. 2012.  Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 95: 454–464.
Marisol Godínez-Rubí, Argelia Rojas-Mayorquín E, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún. 2013. Nitric Oxide Donors as Neuroprotective Agents after an Ischemic Stroke-Related Inflammatory Reaction. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013: 1-16.
Manju Subramanian V, James TJ. 2010.  Age-related protective effect of deprenyl on changes in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes activities in cerebellar tissue in Wistar rats. Cell Stress Chaperones, 15: 743–751.
Mehta K, Balaraman R, Amin AH, Bafna PA, Gulati OD. 2003.  Effects of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol, 86: 191–195.
Misra A, Singhal N, Khurana L. 2010.  Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils. J Am Coll Nutr, 29: 289S-301S.
Minich DM, Bland JS. 2008. Dietary management of the metabolic syndrome beyond macronutriments. Nutr Rev, 66: 429–444.
Mishra KP. 2004.  Cell membrane oxidative damage induced by gammaradiation and apoptotic sensitivity. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 23: 61-66.
Mohana Rao GM, Venkateswararao,  Rawat RKS, Pushpangadan, Shirwaikar A. 2005.  Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of Pushpangadan Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica, 47: 107–113.
 Nettleton JA, Katz R. 2005.  N-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: a review. J Am Diet Assoc, 105: 428–440.
Nishant P, Visavadiya, Narasimhacharya AVRL. 2011. Ameliorative Effects of Herbal Combinations in Hyperlipidemia. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2011: 1-8.
Parthasarthy S, Steinberg D, Seitztum JL. 1992.  The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Ann Rev Med, 43: 219–225.
 Pérez-Echarri N, Pérez-Matute P, Marcos-Gómez B, Marti A, Martinez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. 2009.  Down-regulation in muscle and liver lipogenic genes:EPA  ethyl ester treatment in lean and overweight (high-fat-fed) rats. J Nutr Biochem, 20: 705–714.
PhangM, LazarusS, WoodLG, Garg M. 2011. Diet and thrombosis risk: nutrients for prevention of thrombotic disease. Semin Thromb Hemost, 37: 199–208.
Rabia Kanwal, Muhammad Arshad, Yamin Bibi, Saira Asif, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari. 2015.  Evaluation of Ethnopharmacological and Antioxidant Potential of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. J Chem., 2015: 1-8.
Ray JG, Lonn E, Yi Q, Rathe A, Sheridan P, Kearon C, Yusuf S, Arnold MJ, McQueen MJ, Pogue J, Probstfield J, Fodor G, Held C, Micks M, Jr Genest. 2007.  HOPE-2 Investigators. Venous thromboembo‌lism in association with features of the metabolic syndrome. QJM, 100: 679–684.
Satheesh Kumar Dharmarajan, Kottai Muthu Arumugam. 2012.  Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high Fat diet. Lipids Health Dis, 11: 1-6.
Severinsen MT, Kristensen SR, Johnsen SP, Dethlefsen C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K. 2009. Anthropometry, body fat and venous thromboembolism: a Danish follow-up study. Circulation, 120: 1850–1857.
Shrinivasan K, Viswanad B, Asrat L, Kaul CL, Ramarao P. 2005. Combination of high-fat-diet and low-dose steptozotocin-trated rat: a model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening. Pharmacol Res, 52: 313–320.
Simonyi A, He Y, Sheng W, Sun AY, Wood WG, Weisman GA, Sun GY. 2010. Targeting NADPH oxidase and phospholipases A2 in Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Neurobiol, 41: 73–86.
Si-Yuan Pan, Shu-Feng Zhou, Si-Hua Gao, Zhi-Ling Yu, Shuo-Feng Zhang, Min-Ke Tang, Jian-Ning Sun, Dik-Lung Ma, Yi-Fan Han, Wang-Fun Fong, Kam-Ming Ko. 2013.  New Perspectives on How toDiscover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM’s Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics: A Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013: 1-25.
Sowmia C, Kokilavani R. 2007.  Antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemic effect of Hemidesmus indicus Linn.R. root in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Anc Sci Life, 26: 4–10.
Srinivasan K. 2005. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: Spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 56: 399–414.
Sung Woo Kim, Wonhee Hur, Tian Zhu Li, Young Ki Lee, Jung Eun Choi, Sung Woo Hong, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Chan Ran You, Eun Sun Jung, Chan Kun Jung, Taesun Park, Soo-Jong Um, Seung Kew Yoon. 2014.  Oleuropein prevents the progression of steatohepatitis to hepatic fibrosis induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Exp Mol Med, 46: 1-11.
Tapiero H, Tew KD, Nguken BG, Mathe G. 2002. Polyphenols: Do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies? Biomed Pharmacother, 56: 200–207.
 Talita Higa S, Acauã Spinola V, Miriam Fonseca-Alaniz H, Fabiana Sant´Anna Evangelista. 2014. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol, 6: 47–54.
Vèronique Habauzit, Christine Morand. 2012.  Evidence for a protective effect of polyphenols-containing foods on cardiovascular health: an update for clinicians. Ther Adv Chronic Dis, 3: 87–106.
Visweswara Rao P, Sujana P, Vijaykanth T, Nanda Siva Sankar, Vijaya Kumar B, Dhananjaya Naidu, Gan SH. 2013.  Analysis of the Phytochemical Content and the Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Roots, Stems and Leaves of Hemidesmus indicus, Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora cordifolia. Int J Pharmacol, 9: 277-287.
Vijaimohan K, Jainu M, Sabitha KE, Subramaniyam S, Anandhan C, Shyamala Devi CS. 2006. Beneficial effects of alpha linoleic acid rich flax seed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rat. Life Sci, 79:  448–454.
Zalba G, San JG, MorenoMU, Fortuno A, Beaumont FJ, Diez J. 2001. Oxidative stress in arterial hypertension. Role of NADPH oxidase. Hypertension, 38: 1395–1399.