Safety assessment of rice bran oil in a chicken embryo model

Document Type : Short communication


1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineer, Food Safety Division, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model.
Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated. 
Results: The changes in the liver enzymes activity were not statistically significant. There was significant decrease and increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione level, respectively. It is suggested that RBO is a natural antioxidant source. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) also decreased. No abnormal findings were observed in the chickens.
Conclusion: No toxic effect was observed following RBO administration in chicken embryos. This study showed that RBO is not a safety concern.


Main Subjects

Alvin B, Rein D, Schäfer A, Monnard I, Gremaud G, Lambelet P, Bertoli C. 2005.Similar cholesterol–lowering properties of rice bran oil, with varied γ–oryzanol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Eur J Nutr, 44: 163-173.
Chotimarkorn,C, Benjakul S, Silalai N. 2008. Antioxidant components and properties of five long grained rice bran extracts from commercial available cultivars in Thailand. Food Chem, 111: 636-641.
Gibson XA,  Shartava A,  Mclntyre J.1998.The efficacy of reducing agents or antioxidants in blocking the formation of dense cells and irreversibly sickled cells in vitro. Blood, 91:4373-4378.
Lee SK,  Kang MJ,  Jeon  TW, Ha HW,  Yoo JW,  Ko GS,  KangW,  Jeong HG, Lyoo WS. Jeong TC. 2110. Role of metabolism in 1-bromopropane-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 73:1431-40.
LiangY, Yu G, Qinlu L, Feijun L, Wei W, Qian L, Ying L.2014. A review of the research progress on the bioactive ingredients and physiological activities of rice bran oil. Eur Food Res Technol, 238: 169-176.
Liu WX, Jia FL, He YY,  Zhang  BX.2012.  Protective effects of 5-methoxypsoralen against acetaminophen- induced hepatotoxicity in mice. World J Gastroenterol, 18:2197-2202
Hagl S, Alexa K, Christina S, Schamim H, Ion C, Marc  B, Hesham  El. 2013.Rice bran extract protects from mitochondrial dysfunction in guinea pig brains. Pharmacol Res, 76: 17-27.
Morales G, Paredes A.2014. Antioxidant activities of Lampaya medicinalis extracts and their main chemical constituents. Complement Altern Med, 14:259-271.
Ozer J, Ratner M, Shaw M, Bailey W. Schomaker S.2008.  The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Toxicology, 245: 194-205.
Pourmirza AA. 2000.Toxic Effects of Malathion and Endosulfan on Chick Embryo. J. Agr. Sci. Tech, 2:161-166.
Posuwan J, Pattaneeya P, Vijittra L, Uruwan Y, Ruethaithip S, Rin C, Ratchanee K. 2013. Long-term supplementation of high pigmented rice bran oil on amelioration of oxidative stress and histological changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet; Riceberry bran oil. Food chem, 138:501-508.
Shih  C, Chia-Jung H, Sing-Chung L, Shwu-Huey Y, Wen-Chi H, Hsing-Hsien C. 2011. Preventive effects of rice bran oil on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine/dextran sodium sulphate-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Food Chem, 126:562-567.
Sicinska P, Bukowska B, Michalowicz J,  Duda W. 2006. Damage of cell membrane and ant-oxidative system in human erythrocytes incubated with microcystin-LR in vitro. Toxicon,  47: 387-397.
Sugano M, Tsuji E. 1997. Rice bran oil and cholesterol metabolism. J. Nutr, 127: 521-524.
Surai PF. 1999.Tissue specific changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes during the development of the chicken embryo. Br Poult Sci, 40:397-405.
Ufer C, Wang C. 2011. The roles of glutathione peroxidases during embryo development. Mol. Neurobiol, 4:1-14.
Zhang Y, Chen SY, Hsu T. 2001. Immunohistochemical detection of malondialdehyde–DNA adducts in human oral mucosa cells. Carcinogenesis, 23:207–211.