Abdullaev FI. 1993. Biological effects of saffron. BioFactors, 4: 83–86.
Abdullaev FI. 2002. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp Biol Med, 227: 20–25.
Abe K, Saito H. 2000. Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation. Phytother Res, 14: 149–152.
Alonso GL, Salinas M R, Garijo J, Sánchez-Fernández M A. 2001. Composition of crocins and picrocrocin from Spanish saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J food qual, 24: 219–233.
Asai A, Nakano T, Takahashi M, Nagao A. 2005. Orally administered crocetin and crocins are absorbed into blood plasma as crocetin and its glucuronide conjugates in mice. J Agric Food Chem, 53: 7302-6.
Assimopoulou AN, Sinakos Z, Papageorgiou VP. 2005. Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents. Phytother Res, 19: .997–1000.
Aung HH, Wang CZ, Ni M, Fishbein A, Mehendale SR, Xie JT, Shoyama CY,Yuan CS. 2007. Crocin from Crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Exp oncol, 29: 175–180.
Bathaie SZ, Mousavi SZ. 2010. New applications and mechanisms of action of saffron and its important ingredients. Crit Rev Food Sci, 50: 761–786.
Bayrami G, Boskabady MH, Jalali S,Farkhondeh T. 2013. The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus on tracheal responsiveness and plasma levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, total NO and nitrite in ovalbumin sensitized Guinea-pigs. J EthnoPharmacol, 147: 530–535.
Boskabady M H, Shafei MN, Shakiba A, Sefidi HS. 2008. Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart. Phytother Res, 22: 330–334.
Boskabady MH, Ghasemzadeh M, Nemati H, Esmaeilzadeh M. 2010. Inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Pharmazie, 65: 300–305.
Boskabady MH, Aslani MR. 2006. Relaxant effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanisms. J Pharm Pharmacol, 58: 1385–1390.
Boskabady MH, Byrami G, Faizpour A. 2014. The Effect of Safranal, a Constituent of Crocus sativus (Saffron), on Tracheal Responsiveness, Serum Levels of Cytokines, Total NO and Nitrite in Sensitized Guinea Pigs. Pharmacol Rep, 66: 56–61.
Boskabady MH, Rahbardar MG, Jafari Z. 2011. The effect of safranal on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Fitoterapia, 82: 162–167.
Chang PY, Wang CK, Liang JD, Kuo W .1964. Studies on the pharmacological action of Zang Hong Hua (Crocus sativus L.). I. Effects on uterus and estrus cycle. Yao Xue Xue Bao, 11: 94.
Cheng-Hua Zhou, Min Xiang, Shu-Ying He, Zhi-Yu Qian. Protein Kinase C Pathway is Involved in the Inhibition by Crocetin of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation. Phytother. Res. 24: 1680–1686 (2010)
Dris R , Jain SM. 2004. Production Practices and Quality Assessment of Food Crops:Preharvest Practice . Kluwer, Berlin. Volume 1 ; 218 .
Duarte Juan, Francisco Pi~rez Vizcafno, Pilar Utrilla, Josi~ Jimi~Nez, Juan Tamargo, Antonio Zarzuelo. Vasodilatory effects of flavonoids in rat aortic smooth muscle structure-activity relationships. Gen. Pharmac. Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 857-862, 1993
Escribano J, Alonso GL, Coca-Prados M, Fernandez JA .1996. Crocin, safranal and picrocrocin from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro. Cancer lett, 100:23–30.
Essa MM, Vijayan RK, Castellano-Gonzalez G, Memon MA, Braidy N, Guillemin GJ. 2012. Neuroprotective effect of natural products against Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem res, 37:1829–1842.
Fatehi M, Rashidabady T, Fatehi-Hassanabad Z. 2003. Effects of Crocus sativus petals’ extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum. J ethnopharmacol, 84:199–203.
Ghadrdoost B, Vafaei AA, Rashidy-Pour A, Hajisoltani R, Bandegi AR, Motamedi F, Haghighi S, Sameni HR, Pahlvan S. 2011. Protective effects of saffron extract and its active constituent crocin against oxidative stress and spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic stress in rats. Eur J Pharmacol,667: 222–229.
Goyal SN, Arora S, Sharma AK, Joshi S, Ray R, Bhatia J, Kumari S, Arya DS. 2010. Preventive effect of crocin of Crocus sativus on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastuctural alterations in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Phytomedicine, 17: 227–232.
Gregory MJ, Menary RC, Davies NW. 2005. Effect of drying temperature and air flow on the production and retention of secondary metabolites in saffron. J Agric Food Chem, 53:5969–5975.
He S, Qian Z, Tang F. 2004. Effect of crocin on intracellular calcium concentration in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. Acta Pharm Sin, 39: 778–781.
Horobin RW , Kiernan JA , Eds . 2002. Conn’s Biological Stains: a Handbook of Dyes, Stains and Fluorochromes for Use Biology and Medicine , 10th ed . BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK; 315 .
Hosseinzadeh H, Ziaei T.2006. Effects of Crocus sativus stigma extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on intact memory and scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats performing the Morris water maze task. J Med Plants, 5:40–50.
Hosseinzadeh H, Shamsaie F, Mehri, S. 2009. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma and its bioactive constituents, crocin and safranal. Pharmacog Mag, 5: 419.
Hosseinzadeh H, Ghenaati J. 2006. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs. Fitoterapia, 77: 446–448.
Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi G, Niapoor M. 2004. Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. stigma extracts and their constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. J Med Plants, 3: 48–58.
Hosseinzadeh H, Noraei NB. 2009. Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Phytother Res, 23:768–774.
Hosseinzadeh H , Sadeghnia HR. 2007. Effect of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage in mouse organs: an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. DNA and cell biol, 26:841–846.
Hoyle CHV , Burnstock G. 1991. ATP receptors and their physiological roles. In: Stone, TW. (Ed.), Adenosine in the Nervous System. Academic Press, London, 43-76.
Imenshahidi M, Razavi B M, Faal A, Gholampoor A, Mousavi S M, Hosseinzadeh H. 2014. Effects of chronic crocin treatment on desoxycorticosterone acetate (doca)-salt hypertensive rats.Iran J Basic Med Sci , 17:9.
Imenshahidi M, Razavi B M, Faal A, Gholampoor A, Mousavi S M, Hosseinzadeh H. 2013. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod, 8:175.
Imenshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Javadpour Y. 2010. Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Phytother Res, 24: 990–994.
Jahanbakhsh Z, Rasoulian B, Jafari M, Shekarforoush Sh, Esmailidehaj M, Mohammadi M T, Aghai H, Salehi M. 2012. Protective effect of crocin against reperfusion-induced cardiac arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats. EXCLI J, 11:20–29.
Karrer P, Benz F, Stoll M.1933. Pflanzenfarbstoffe XLIX. Synthese des Perhydro-crocetins. Helv Chim Acta, 16: 297–302.
Kataria D, Kumar C, Nerkar N, Gadiya RV, Abhyankar MM. 2011. Detail profile of Crocus sativus. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences; 2: 530-540.
Lillie RD. 1977. Conn’s Biological Stains: a Handbook on the Nature and Uses of the Dyes Employed in the Biological Laboratory , 9 th ed . Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD; 459 .
Liu N,Yang Y, Mo S, Liao J, Jin J. 2005. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: Preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45Ca. Appl Radiat Isot, 63: 151–155.
Martin G, Goh E ,Neff AW. 2002. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of crocetin on Xenopus.Food Chem Toxicol , 40: 959–964.
Mehri S, Abnous Kh, Mousavi SH, Shariaty VM, Hosseinzadeh H. 2012. Neuroprotective effect of crocin on acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Cell mol neurobiol, 32: 227–235.
Melnyk JP, Wang S , Marcone MF. 2010. Chemical and biological properties of the world’s most expensive spice: Saffron. Food Chem Toxicol , 43: 1981–1989.
Mousavi SH, Moallem SA, Mehri S, Shahsavand Sh, Nassirli H, Malaekeh-Nikouei B 2011. Improvement of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of crocin in cancer cell lines by its nanoliposomal form. Pharm biol, 49:1039–1045.
Neamati N, Boskabady MH.2010. Effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on muscarinic receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Func Plant Sci Biotec, 4:128–131.
Nemati H, Boskabady MH, Ahmadzadef Vostakolaei H. 2008. Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on β 2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains. Phytomedicine, 15: 1038–1045.
Pitsikas N, Zisopoulou S, Tarantilis P A, Kanakis Ch D, Polissiou M G, Sakellaridis N.2007. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins on recognition and spatial rats’ memory. Behav brain res, 183: 141–146.
Premkumar K, Abraham SK, Santhiya ST, Gopinath PM, Ramesh A. 2001. Inhibition of genotoxicity by saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in mice. Drug chem toxicol, 24; 421–428.
Razavi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Abnous Kh, Motamedshariaty V, Imenshahidi M. 2013. Crocin restores hypotensive effect of subchronic administration of diazinon in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 16: 64.
Razavi Marjan, Hosseinzadeh Hossein, Abnous Khalil, Motamedshariaty Vahideh Sadat, Imenshahidi Mohsen. Crocin Restores Hypotensive Effect of Subchronic Administration of Diazinon in Rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. Vol. 15, Article in press
Rios JL, Recio MC, Giner RM, Manez S. 1996. An update review of saffron and its active constituents.Phytother Res, 10: 189–193.
Soeda S, Ochiai T, Shimeno H, Saito H, Abe K, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y . 2007.Pharmacological activities of crocin in saffron. J Nat Med, 61: 102–111.
Srivastava R, Ahmed H, Dixit RK, Dharameveer, Saraf SA. 2010. Crocus sativus L. A comprehensive review. Pharmacogn Rev;4: 200.
Tarantilis PA, Polissiou MG.1997. Isolation and identification of the aroma components from saffron (Crocus sativus). J Agric Food Chem, 45: 459–462.
Tang FT, Qian ZY, Liu PQ, Zheng SG, He SY, Bao LP, Huang HQ. 2066. Crocetin improves endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta in hypercholesterolemic rabbit by increasing eNOS activity. Biochem Pharmacol, 72:558-565.
Williams BA, Liu C, De Young L, Brock GB, Sims SM. 2005. Regulation of intracellular Ca2+ release in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle: synergism between nitric oxide and cGMP.Am J Physiol Cell Physiol , 288: C650–C658.
Winterhalter P, Straubinger M. 2000. Saffron-renewed interest in an ancient spice. Food Rev Int, 16:39–59.
Xi L, Qian Z, Du P, Fu J. 2007. Pharmacokinetic properties of crocin (crocetin digentiobiose ester) following oral administration in rats. Phytomedicine, 14: 633–636.
Xu GL, Qian ZY, Yu, SQ, Gong, ZN, Shen, XC. 2006. Evidence of crocin against endothelial injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 8:79–85.
Zhang R, Qian ZY, Han XY, Chen Z, Yan JL, Hamid A. 2009. Comparison of the effects of crocetin and crocin on myocardial injury in rats. Chinese J Nat Med, 7: 223–227.