Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Researcher, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, Iran.

2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.


Objectives: Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds.
Materials and Methods: Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated.
Results: The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls.
Conclusions: Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies.


Main Subjects

Bodeker G, Hughes MA. 1998. Wound healing, traditional treatments and research policy. In Etkin N., Prendergast H., and Houghton P.(Eds), Plants for Food and Medicine. pp.345-349. Kew Press, London.
Davidson JM. 1998. Wound repair. J HAND THER, 11: 80-94.
Elmastas M, Ozturk L, Gokce I, Erenler R, Aboulā€Enein, Hassan Y. 2004. Determination of antioxidant activity of marshmallow flower (Althaea officinalis L.). ANAL LETT, 37: 1859-1869.
English BK, Gaur A H. 2010. The use and abuse of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VI, pp.73-82, Springer, New York.
Govindarajan R,  Vijayakumar M, Pushpangadan P. 2005. Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of ‘Rasayana’herbs of Ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol, 99: 165-178.
Gudej J. 1981. Polyphenolic compounds in Althaea officinalis leaves. Acta Pol Pharm, 38: 385.
Houghton P, Hylands P. 2005. In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example. Ethnopharmacol, 100: 100-107.
Jahanshahi G, Moattar F, Soltani M. 2004. Evaluation of a herbal medicine in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcer. J Dent Sch, 47: 927-930.
Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Gaynes RP. 2008. The impact of antimicrobial-resistant, health care–associated infections on mortality in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis, 47: 927-930.
Lehrer MS, Sun T-T, Lavker RM. 1998. Strategies of epithelial repair: modulation of stem cell and transit amplifying cell proliferation. J. Cell Sci, 111: 2867-2875.
Levy, SB. 1998. The challenge of antibiotic resistance. SCI AM, 278: 32-39.
Levy SB, Marshall B. 2004. Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nature Med, 10: S122-S129.
Nostro A, Germano MP, D’angelo V, Marino A, Cannatelli MA. 2000. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity. Lett Appl Microbiol, 30: 379-384.
Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA. 2000. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature, 405: 299-304.
Quinn JP. 1998. Clinical problems posed by multiresistant nonfermenting gram-negative pathogens. Clin. Infect. Dis., 27: S117-S124.
Recio M, Rios J, Villar A. 1989. Antimicrobial activity of selected plants employed in the Spanish Mediterranean area. Part II. Phytother. Res., 3: 77-80.
Redfern JM. Kinninmonth M, Burdass D. Verran J. 2014. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils) for Their Antimicrobial Properties. J Microbiol Biol Educ. 15: 45.
Robson MC, Mustoe TA, Hunt TK. 1998. The future of recombinant growth factors in wound healing. Am J Surg, 176: 80S-82S.
Stadelmann WK, Digenis AG, Tobin GR. 1998. Impediments to wound healing. The Am J Surg, 176: 39S-47S.
Talei G,  Meshkat Alsadat M, Mousavi Z. 2007. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oils from four medicinal plants of Lorestan, Iran. J. Med. Plants.
Weinstein RA, Gaynes R, Edwards JR. 2005. Overview of nosocomial infections caused by gram-negative bacilli. Clin. Infect. Dis.,  41: 848-854.