Effects of ethanol extract of Salvia hydrangea on hepatic and renal functions of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Biology, Unit of Science and Research, Islamic Azad University of Damghan, Damghan, I.R. Iran

2 Department of Biology, Unit of Science and Research, Islamic Azad University of Semnan, Semnan, I.R. Iran

3 Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, I. R. Iran

4 Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I. R. Iran


Objectives: A wide range of liver and kidney disorders are associated with diabetes and there is a mutual relationship between diabetes and these diseases. Herbal medicine with having abundant ingredients is one of these options. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Salvia hydrangea with glibenclamide on functional tests of liver and kidney in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n= 7 in each group): control, diabetic control, and three experimental diabetic groups. The controls had normal access to water and food, the diabetic control group was given drug solvent and the three experimental groups received ethanol extract of Salvia hydrangea at doses of 100 and 200 mg and glibenclamideat a dose of 10 mg/kg/BW by gavage, respectively. To induce diabetes, a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg/BW) was injected to rats intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected at day 21 from all groups and the related blood factors were measured and analyzed.
Results: The results showed that the levels of creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in all diabetic groups increased compared to the control group. In all experimental groups and the group which received glibenclamide,a significant decrease was shown compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The consumption of alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Salvia hydrangea may have beneficial effects on the reduction of diabetic complications by lowering blood sugar without any adverse effects on the kidney and liver tissue.


Main Subjects

Ahmed AM. 2002. History of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J, 23: 373-8.
Amouoghli-Tabrizi B, Mohajeri D. 2011. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats. Zahedan J Res Med Sci, 13: 13-19.
AnandP,Murali K Y.preliminary. 2007. studies on Hypoglycemic of extract of brassica nigra on streptozotocin-induced diabetic in rats.Indian Journal of expremental Biology, 45,696-701.
Asgary S, Kazemi S, Moshtaghian SJ, Rafieian M, Bahrami M, Adelnia A. 2010.The protective effect of Cucurbitapepo L. on liver damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. J, 11: 59-65. In Persian.
Chandramohan G, Al-Numair KS, Pugalendi KV. 2009. Effect of 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol on hepatic and renal functional markers and protein levels in streptozotocindiabetic rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 3: 198-204.
Chhetri, D.R., Parajuli, P., Subba, G.C. 2005. Antidiabetic plants used by Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes, India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 99:199–202.
Eidi M, Eidi A, Zamanizadeh H. 2005. Effect ofSalvia officinalis L. leaves on serum glucose andinsulin in healthy and streptozocin-induceddiabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol, 100: 310 -3.
Feldman, J.M.1998. In Diabetes Mellitus, 9thed.Indianapolis, Eli Lilly &co, pp: 28-42.
Ghamarian A, Abdollahi M, Su X, Amiri A, Ahadi A, Nowrouzi A. 2012 .Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20:56.
Ghosal S, Biswas K, Jaiswal DK. Chemical constituents of Gentianaceae, Part 27, Xanthone and flavonol constituents of Swertia hookeri. Phytochem 1980;19:123. Giacco F, Brownlee M. 2010. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications.Circ Res.107: 1058–1070.
Guyton AC, Hall JE .2012.Textbook of Medical physiology. 12thed, pp,450-454 ,Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Kaneto H, Katakami N, Kawamori D, Miyatsuka T, Sakamoto K, Matsuoka TA. 2007. Involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes.Antioxide Redox Signal, 9: 355-66.
Kawanishi, K., Ueda, H., and Moriyasu, M. 2003. Aldose reductase inhibitors from the nature.Curr. Med. Chem, 10:1353-1374.
Kazemi S, Asgary S, Moshtaghian J, Rafieian M, Adelnia A, Shamsi F. 2010. Liver –protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifoliumBoiss in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Arya Atherosclerosis, 6: 5-11.
Leeds JS, Forman EM, Morley S, Scott AR, Tesfaye S, Sanders DS. 2009, Abnormal liver function tests in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus: prevalence, clinical correlations and underlying pathologies. Diabet Med, 26: 1235-41.
Lee HJ, Jeong KH, Kim YG, Moon JY, Lee SH, Ihm CG, Sung JY, Lee TW. 2014. Febuxostat Ameliorates Diabetic Renal Injury in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Model. Am J Nephrol,11;40:56-63.
Leonid Poretsky. 2009. Principles of diabetes mellitus. 2nd Ed:3, pp, 10-15 .New York: Springer.
Lim SS, Jung YJ, Hyun SK, Lee YS, Choi JS. 2006. Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory constituents of Nelumbonucifera stamens.Phytother Res, 20: 825-30.
Mandade R, Sreenivas SA. 2011. Anti-diabetic effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosasinesis L. on streptozotocininduced diabetic rats and the possible morphologic changes in the liver and kidney. Int J Pharm, 73 :363-369.
Maroo J, Vasu VT, Aalinkeel R, and Gupta S. 2002. Glucose Lowering Effect of Aqueous Extract of EnicostemmaLittoraleBlume in Diabetes: A Possible Mechanism of Action, J Ethnopharmacol 81: 317-320.
Medvei, Victor Cornelius. 1993.The history of clinical endocrinology. Carnforth, Lancs., U.K: Parthenon Pub. Group; 23–34.
Mokhtary M, Sharifi E, Shahamir-Tabatabaee M. 2013.The effect of carob extract on liver function test in diabetic male rat. J ShahrekordUniv Med Sci, 15:40-47.
Moridi Farimani M, Taheri S, Ebrahimi SN, Bahadori B. Khavasi HR. 2012. A New Isoprenoid with an Unprecedented Skeleton from Salvia hydrangea. American Chemical Society, 14:166-169.
Nan JX, Park EJ, Kang HC, Park PH, Kim JY, Sohn DH. 2001.Anti-fibrotic effects of a hot-water extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza roots on liver fibrosis induced by biliary obstruction in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol, 53:197-204.
Navarro CM, Montilla PM, Martin A, Jimenez J, Utrilla PM. 1993. Free radicals scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus.Plant. Med. Phytother, 59: 312–314.
Nickavar B, Abolhasani L and Izadpanah H. 2008.α-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Six Salvia Species Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 7: 297-303.
Ozougwu, J. C, Obimba, K. C, Belonwu, C. D, and Unakalamba, C. B. 2013.The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology , . 4: 46-57.
Pen, F., Fang, C.S., Effect of Swertiapunicea Hems. 2003. on protection of experimental diabetic mice. Chin. J. Tradit. Med. Sci. Technol, 10:96–97.
Perfumi M, Arnold N and Tacconi R. 1991. Hypoglycemic activity of Salvia fruticosa Mill.J.Ethnopharmacol, 23: 135 - 40.
Pickup JC, William G. 1997.Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus.Textbook of diabetes. 2nd ed. UK: Blackwell, Oxford, 3.1-3.28.
Sellamuthu PS, Arulselvan P, Muniappan BP, Fakurazi S, Kandasamy M. 2013. Mangiferin from Salaciachinensis prevents oxidative stress and protects pancreatic β-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Med Food.;16:719-27.
Serrano-Martin X, Payares G, Mendoza-Leon A. 2006. Glibenclamide, a blocker of K+ (ATP) channels, shows antileishmanial activity in experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 50: 4214–6.
20. Sonboli A, Fakhari AR, Sefidkon F. 2005. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia macilentaBoiss.from Iran. Chem. Nat. Comp.; 41:168 - 70.
ThiruvenkatasubramaniamR, and Jayakar B. 2010. Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidaemic Activities of Bauhinia variegata L on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2:330-334.
Thomson M, AI-Amin ZM, AI-Qattan KK, Shaban LH, Muslim A. 2007. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic properties of garlic Allium sativum in streptozotpcin– induced rats. Int J Diabetes & Metab,15:108-115.
Upendra Rao M, Sreenivasulu M, Chengaiah B, Jaganmohan Reddy, MadhusudhanaChetty C. 2010. A Review Herbal Medicines for Diabetes Mellitus.Int.J. PharmTech Res, 2: 1883-1892.
Vessal M, Hemmati M, Vasei M. 2003. Antidiabetic effects of quercetin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.CompBiochemPhysiolToxicolPharmacol, 135: 357- 64.
Yakubu MT, Musa IF. 2012.Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna a lata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves. Iranian Journal of Toxicology.; 6:615-625.
Yi Lin ,Zhongjie Sun.2010. Current views on type 2 diabetes. Journal of Endocrinology, 204:1–11.
Zarei A, Changizi Ashtiyani S, Rezaei A, NabiAbdolyousefi N, Ghosemi A. 2013a. The Experimental Study of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Chelidoniummajus on Liver Function Tests and Renal in Rats with Hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 12: 117-127.
Zarei A, Changizi-Ashtiyani S, Taheri S, Rasekh F. 2014b.Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats. AJP, 4:1-9.
Zarei A, Changizi Ashtiyani S, Taheri S. 2014c. The effects of hydroalcoholicextract of PortulacaOleraceaon the concentration of Hepatic enzymes on Rats. ISMJ, 17: 647-657.
Zare T, Mokhtari M, Mohammadi J. 2012. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of PrangosFerulacea on Blood Factors of Kidney and Liver Functions in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences, 2:174-180.
Zarzuelo A, Risco S, Gamez MJ, Jimenez J,Camara M, Martinez MA. 1990. Hypoglycemic action of Salvia lavandulifoliaVahl. Spp. Oxyodon: a contribution to studies on the mechanism of action. Life Sci, 47: 909 – 15.
SheybaniAsl Z, Malekirad A, Abdollahi M, Bakhshipour A, Dastjerdi H,                Mostafalou S, Poor R. 2014. Effects of the Mixture of Cichoriumintybus L. and Cinnamomumzeylanicum on Hepatic Enzymes Activity and Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Health, 6:1212-1217