In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmacy Jahangirnagar University

2 Department of Pharmacy, BRAC University


Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata.
Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay.
Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 μg/disc) showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) (400 μg/disc) exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and  23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) was 3.01 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml.
Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic.


Main Subjects

Ajay KK, Lokanatha RMK, Umesha KB. 2002. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3, 5-dicyano-4, 6-diaryl-4-ethoxycarbonyl-piperid-2-ones. J Pharm Biomed Ans, 27: 837-840.
Abdul MM, Sarker AA, Saiful IM, Muniruddin A. 2010. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Extract of Abutilon Indicum. Int J Pharm Phyto Res, 2: 1-4.
Abbanat D, Morrow B, Bush K. 2008. New agents in development for the treatment of bacterial Infections. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 8: 582-592.
Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherries, Tuck M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized disc diffusion method. J Am clin Pathol, 45: 493‐496.
Bandara KA, Kumar V, Jacobsson U, Molleyres LP. 2000. Insecticidal piperidine alkaloid from Microcospaniculatastem bark. Phytochemistry, 54: 29-32.
Choudhury S, Sree A, Mukherjee SC, Pattaik P, Bapuji M. 2005. In vitro antibacterial activity of extracts of selected marine algae and mangroves against fish pathogens. Asain Fisheries Sci, 18: 285-294.
Dash PR, Nasrin M, Raihan SZ, Ali MS. 2014b. Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of two medicinal plants of Bangladesh in castor-oil induced diarrhoea. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 5: 1000-1004.
Dash PR, Nasrin M, Ali MS. 2014a. In vivo Cytotoxic and In vitro Antibacterial activities of Kaempferia galanga. J Pharcogn Phytochem, 3: 172-177.
Ebi GC, Ofoefule SI. 1997. Investigating into folkloric antimicrobial activities of Landolphia owerrience. Phyto Res, 11: 149-151.
Feng SX, Lin LD, Xu HH, Wei XY. 2008. Two new piperidine alkaloids from the leaves of Microcospaniculata. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 10: 1155-1158.
Finney DJ. 1971. Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, London.
Ghani A. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. pp. 134-135, 175-179, Dhaka, Bangladesh, The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
Ghani A. 2003. Practical Phytochemistry. pp. 149-152, Dhaka, Bangladesh,Parash Publishers.
Meyer BN, Ferringni NR, Puam JE, Lacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. 1982. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active constituents. Planta Medica, 45:31-32.
McLaughlin JL, Rogers LL, Anderson JE. 1998. The use of Biological Assays to Evaluate Botanicals. Drug Information J, 32: 513-524.
Nasrin M, Raihan SZ, Ali MS. 2013. Ethnopharmacological investigation of the spice Grewiapaniculata. Germany, Lambert Academic Publishing.
Nadkarni KM, Basu BD. 1996. Jasminumsambac. In: Indian MateriaMedica, pp.94-97, Mumbai, India, Popular prakashan Ltd.
Okeke MI, Iroegbu CU, Eze EN, Okoli AS Esimone CO. 2001. Evaluation of extracts of the root of Landolphiaowerriencefor antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol, 78: 119-127.
Parvez MAK, Khan MMH, Islam MZ, Hasan SM. 2005. Antibacterial activities of the petroleum ether, methanol and extracts of Kaempferiagalanga L. rhizome. J Life Earth Science, 1: 25-29.
Parvin MN, Sarwar S, Chowdhury SA, Zakaria HM, Huda NH. 2010. In-vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidants studies of Elaeocarpus serratus. S J Pharma Sci, 2: 86-90.
Rahman MA, Sampad KS, Hasan HN, Saifuzzaman M. 2011. Analgesic and cytotoxic activities of Microcospaniculata Linn. Pharmacologyonline, 1: 779-785.
Rahman MM, Islam AMT, Chowdhury MAU, Uddin MA, Jamil A. 2012. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves extract of Microcospaniculatain mice. Int J Pharm, 2: 21-25.
Sein TT, Spurio R, Cecchini C, Cresci A. 2008. Screening for microbial strains degrading glass fiber acrylic composite filters. IntBiodeterior Biodegradation, 63: 901-905.
Vlachos V, Critchley AT, Holy AV. 1997. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from selected Southern African marine macro-algae. S Afr J Sci, 93: 328-332.
Yasmin H, Kaisar MA, Sarker MMR, Rahman MS, Rashid MA. 2009. Preliminary Anti-bacterial Activity of Some Indigenous Plants of Bangladesh. Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci, 8: 61-65.