Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Boerhavia elegans (choisy) grown in Baluchestan, Iran

Document Type : Short communication


1 Department of Production and Utilization of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Higher Educational Complex of Saravan, Saravan, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Biology, University of Sistan & Baluchestan, Zahedan, I. R. Iran

3 Biotechnology Research Center and School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I. R. Iran


Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant propertyof B. elegans species for the first time.
Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent.
Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts.
Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements.


Main Subjects

Aksoy L, Kolay E, Agılonu Y, Aslan Z, Kargıoglu M. 2013. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis. Turcica, 20: 235–239.
Bhatt P, Negi PS. 2012. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the leaf extracts of Indian Borage (Plectranthusamboinicus).Food Nutr Sci, 3: 146-152.
Chaouche TMd, Haddouchi F, Ksouri R, Medini F, El-Haci IA, et al. 2013. Antioxidant activity profiling by spectrophotometric methods of phenolic extract of Prasiummajus L. Free Radic Antioxidant, 3: 43-46.
Chen SH, Wu MJ. 2007. A taxonomical study of the genus Boerhavia (Nyctaginaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania, 52: 332-342
Clarke G, Ting KN, Wiart Ch, Fry J. 2013. High correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing activity potential and total phenolics content indicates redundancy in use of all three assays to screen for antioxidant activity of extracts of plants from the malaysian rainforest. Antioxidants, 2: 1-10.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmorad F, Hafezi S. 2008. Antioxidant activities of Iranian corn silk. Turk J Biol, 32:43-49.
Fosberg FR. 1978. Studies in the Genus Boerhavia L. (Nyct aginaceae). Washington D.C., Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No 39.
Ghahraman A. 1996. Color Atlas of Iranian Flora. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Publishing, code 030,001,003. No 2021.
Ghahraman A. 2004. Plant systematic: coromophytes of Iran. Vol. 1, pp. 316, Tehran, Iran University press.
Ghanbari R, Ghavami M, Safafar H.  Antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis for stabilization of Canola oil, 12-13 April 2006, 16th National Congress of Iran Food Industry, Gorgan, Iran.
Gupta VK, Sharma SK. 2006. Plants as natural antioxidants. Nat Prod Radiance, 5: 326-334.
Huang WY, Cai YZ, Zhang Y.2009. Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: Potential use for cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer, 62: 1-20.
Huda-Faujan N, Noriham A, Norrakiah AS, Babji AS. 2009. Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds. Afr J Biotech, 8: 484-489.
Jayavelu A, Natarajan A, Sundaresan S, Devi K, Senthilkumar B. 2013. Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhavia Diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae) against Ibuprofen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats. Int J Pharm Res Rev, 2: 1-8.
Katalinic V, Milos M, Modun D, Music I, Boban M. 2004. Antioxidant effectiveness of selected wines in comparison with (+)-catechin. Food Chem, 86: 593–600.
Khoddami A, Wilkes MA, Roberts TH. 2013. Techniques for analysis of plant phenolic compounds. Molecules, 18: 2328-2375
Koleva II, Beek TAv, Linssen JPH, Groot1 A, Evstatieva LN. 2002. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal, 13: 8–17.
Mahesh AR, Kumar H, Ranganath MK, Devkar RA. 2012. Detail study on Boerhavia Diffusa plant for its medicinal importance- a review. Res J Pharm Sci, 1: 28-36.
Morgan J, Klucas RV, Grayer RJ, Abian J, Becana M. 1997. Complexes of iron with phenolic compounds from soybean nodules and other legume tissues: prooxidant and antioxidant properties. Free Radic Biol Med, 22: 861.
Najam A, Singh AK, Verma HN. 2008. Ancient and modern medicinal potential of Boerhaavia diffusa and Clerodendrum aculeatum. Res Environ Life Sci, 1: 1-4.
Parsa, A. 1980. Flora of Iran, vol. 4, pp. 1175, Tehran, Tehran university press.
Ramazani A, Zakeri S, Sardari S, Khodakarim N, Dinparas Djadidt N. 2010. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense. Malaria J, 9:124.
Sadeghi Z, Kuhestani K, Abdollahi V, Mahmood A. 2014. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants of Saravan region, Baluchistan, Iran. J Ethnopharmacol, 153: 111–118.
Sadeghi Z, Kuhestani K, Abdollahi V. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants: An approach to sustainable development of Baluchistan region, 10 March. 2013, 1th national conference on solutions to access sustainable development in agriculture, natural resources and the environment. Tehran. Iran.
Sandhu PS, Singh B, Gupta V, Bansal P, Kumar D. 2011. Potential herbs used in ocular diseases. J Pharm Sci & Res, 3:1127-1140.
Sonboli A, Mojarrad M, Nejad Ebrahimi S, Enayat S. 2010. Free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts from male inflorescence of Salix aegyptiacagrown in Iran. Iranian J Pharmaceut Res, 9: 293-296.
Souri E, Amin G, Farsam H, Barazandeh Tehrani M.2008. Screening of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 24 medicinal plant extracts. DARU. 16: 83-87.
Spellenberg R. 2012. Boerhavia coulterivar coulteri (Nyctaginaceae), new to California. Phytoneuron, 88: 1–2.
Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Composit Anal, 19: 669–675.
Wojdylo A, Oszmianski J, Czemerys R. 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem, 105: 940–949.
Zargari A. 1987. Medicinal plants, University of Tehran Press, 7 th edition, 4: 278.