Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS depressant activities of methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis barks in mice

Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

3 Radiant Pharmaceutical Ltd, Tongi, Bangladesh


Objectives: The study was carried out to assess the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and CNS depressant activity of the methanolic extract of  the Lawsonia inermis barks(MELIB).
Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effects of MEBLI were studied using carrageenan-induced inflammatory method at the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg b.wt., p.o. Analgesic activity was measured using acetic acid-induced writhing model and formalin-induced licking and biting in mice. The CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field and hole cross tests at a dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight.
Results: Statistical analysis showed that dose  of 500 mg/kg  exhibited higher analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced pain in mice than the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Furthermore, doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg caused higher percent of protection (91.16% and 95.03%, respectively) of licking and biting of formalin-induced mice than diclophenac sodium (70.72%). The Lawsonia inemis methanolic extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) alsoexhibited sustained inhibition (54.97% and 65.56%) of paw edema at the 4th hour compared with standard indomethacin (74.17%). Besides, the plant extract also had significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent CNS depressant activity.
Conclusion: this study recommends that the methanolic extract of  Lawsonia inermis barks has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and CNS depressant properties.


Main Subjects

Achinta S, Masud MA, Sitesh BC, Joydeb KK, Bidyut DK, Lutfun N, Satyajit SD. 2007. The Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Extracts of Phyllanthusreticulatus in Mice Model. Pharm Biol,45: 355-359.
Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK. 2002. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Currnt Sci, 82: 1336-1345.
Bently GA, Newton SH, Star J. 1983. Studies on the antinociceptive action of alpha agonist drugs and their interaction with opioid mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol, 79: 125-134.
Berenji F, Rakhshandeh H, Ebrahimipour H. 2010. In vitro study of the effects of henna extracts (Lawsonia inermis) on Malassezia species. J J Microbiol, 3: 125-128.
Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS. 1997. Experimental methods for evaluation of psychotropic agentsinrodents: I--Anti-anxiety agents. Indian J Exp Biol, 35:565-575.
Chichorro JG, Lorenzetti BB, Zampronio AR. 2004. Involvement of bradykinin, cytokines, sympathetics amines and prostaglandins in formalin induced orofacial nociception in rats. Br J pharmacol, 141: 84-117.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Sander KM. 1997. Natural products in drug discovery and development. J Nat Prod, 60: 52-60.
Deraedt R, Jougney S, Delevalcee F, Falhout M. 1980. Release of prostaglandin E and F in an algogenic reaction and its inhibition. Eur J Pharmacol, 61: 17-24.
Dev S. 2006. A selection of prime ayurvedic plant drugs. Ancient- modern concordance. A Publishers, pp. 276-279, Delhi, India.
Devendra K, Bhardwai, Tiravenkata R, Seshadri, Singh R. 1977. Xanthones from Lawsonia inermis.  Phytochem, 16: 1616-1617.
Dinesh PB, Subhasree RS. 2009. Antimicrobial Activities of Lawsonia inermis - A Review. Academic J Plant Sci, 2: 231-232.
Gagandeep C, Sandeep G, Priyanka P.  2010. Lawsonia inermis Linnaeus: A Phytopharmacological Review. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res,2: 91-98
Ghanadi A, Hajhasemi V, Jafarabadi H, 2005.  An investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J of med food,  8: 488-493.
Ghanshyam Y, Vipin KG, Nishi T, Pragati K. 2013. Locomotor Activity of  Methanolic Extract of  Saraca indica Bark. A in Biol Re, 7:01-03.
Goyal BR, Goyal RK, Mehta AA. 2008. Phyto-Pharmacognosy of Archyranthes aspera: A Review. Pharmacog Re, 1: 1.
Gupta BD, Dandiya PC, Gupta ML. 1971. A psychopharmacological analysis of behavior in rat. Jpn J Pharmacol, 21: 293.
Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Gomathi P, Thamil SV.  2006. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumer acuminate. BMC complement altern Med, 6: 36.
Gupta S, Ali M, Pillai KK, Alam MS. 1993.  Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some constituents of Lawsonia inermis. Fitoterapia,64: 365-366.
Hasan I, Nasir UM, Forhad MK, Humayera KH, Moklesur RS. 2013. Alpha Amylase Enzyme Inhibitory and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Lawsonia inermis. Pak J of Biol Sci,16: 1796-1800.
Hunskar S, Hole K. 1987. The formalin test in mice:  dissociation between inflammatory and noninflammatory Pain. Pain, 30: 103-114.
Khandelwal KR. 2006. Practical pharmacognosy technique and experiments. N Prakashan,  162-165.
Khare CP.  2007. Indian medicinal plants. An Illustrated Dictionary. Springer, 366.
Kirkland D, Marzin D. 2003. An assessment of the genotoxicity of 2-hydroxy-1, 4 naphthoquinone, the natural dye ingredient of Henna. Mutation Re, 537: 183-199.
Kolawole OT, Makinde JM, Olajide OA. 2007. Central nervous depressant activity of Russelia equisetiformis. Niger J Physiol Sci, 22: 59-63.
Lavhate MS, Mishra SH. 2007. A review: nutritional and therapeutic potential of Ailanthus excelsa. Pharmacog Re, 1: 105-113.
Lee K, Choi E. 2008.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Ligulariafisceri leaves in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol, 12:103-107.
Makhija NK, Dhananjaya DR, Vijay KS, Raviraj D, Devang K, Nishant M, Sandeep C, 2011. Lawsonia inermis–From Traditional Use to Scientific Assessment. AJP Sci and Pharm, 2: 145-165.
Mansur RM,  Martz W, Carlini EA. 1980. Effects of acute and chronic administration of Cannabis satis and (-) 9-transtetrahydrocannabinaol on the behaviour of rats in open field arena. Psychopharmacol, 2: 5-7.
Moore PK, Oluyomi AO, Baddedge RC, Wallace P, Hart SL. 1991. L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester exhibits antinociceptive activity in the mouse. Br J Pharmacol, 102: 198-202.
Murrey CW, Porreca F, Cowan A. 1988. Methodological refinements to the mouse paw formalin test: an animal model of tonic pain. J Pharmacol Tox Meth, 20: 175-186.
Ozturk Y, Aydini S, Beis R, Baser KHC, Berberoglu H. 1996. Effect of Hypericumpericum L. and Hypericum calycinum L. extracts on the central nervous system in mice. Phytomedicine, 3: 139-146.
Padma TV. 2005. India Ayurveda. Nature, 436-486.
Philip JP, Madhumitha G, Mary SA. 2011. Free radical scavenging and reducing power of Lawsonia inermis  L. seeds. Asian Pac J Trop Med, 4: 457-461.
Rakotonirina VS, Bum EN, Rakotonirena A, Bopelet M. 2001. Sedative properties of the decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus anticulatives. Fitoterapia,72: 22-29.
Santodomingo G T, Cinha TM, Verri WA, Valrio DA, Parada CA, Poole S, Ferreira SH, Cunha F. 2006.  Atorfvastatin inhibits anti-inflammatory hypernociception. Br J Pharmacol, 49: 14-22.
Sharma A, Bhatial S, Kharyaz MD, Gajbhiye V, Ganesh N, Namdeo AG, Mahadik KR. 2010. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswelliaserrata. IJ Phytomed, 2: 94-99.        
Singh VK, Pandey DK. 1989. Fungitoxic studies on bark extract of Lawsonia inermis against ringworm fungi. H A Bulletin, 31: 32-35.
Takagi K, Watanabe M, Saito H. 1971. Studies on the spontaneous movement of animals by the hole cross test: Effect of 2-dimethylaminoethane. Its acylates on the central nervous system. Jpn J Pharmacol, 21: 797.
Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. 1992. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain, 51: 5-17.
Verma A, Jana GK, Sen S, Chakraborty R, Sachan S, Mishra A. 2010.  Pharmacological evaluationof<I>Saracaindica</I>Leaves for central nervous system depressant activity in mice. J Pharm Sci Res, 2: 338-343.
Watkins LR, Martin D, Ulrich P, Tracey KJ, Maier SF. 1997. Evidence for the involvement of spinal cord glia in subcutaneous formalin induced hyperalgesia in the raty. Pain, 71: 225-235.
Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. 1962. Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paws of the rats as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 111: 544-557.