In vivo and in vitro effects of crocetin and its amide derivative on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective: Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxic agent whose damage could be attenuated by antioxidants administration. Crocetin is a saffron-derived antioxidant that has neuroprotective effects. This study evaluates the protective effects of trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) and its water-soluble derivative, Bis-N-(N-methylpyprazinyl) crocetinate (BMPC) against ACR neurotoxicity.
Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were treated with TSC and BMPC (1.95, 3.9, 7.81, 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μM) for 24 hr. ACR was then added at a concentration of 6.5 mM (IC50), and cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. In the in vivo study, male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 11 days alone or in combination with TSC and BMPC (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p.). Motor impairments were then evaluated. The cerebral cortex of sacrificed rats was taken for the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels measurement.
Results: In vitro studies showed that TSC at a concentration of 7.81 μM and BMPC at concentrations of 3.9, 7.81, and 15.62 μM exhibited the lowest toxicity in acrylamide administration. In the in vivo study, pretreatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of TSC ameliorated behavioral impairments, but BMPC could not attenuate them. GSH and MDA were improved by 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg TSC and 2.5 mg/kg BMPC.
Conclusion: TSC and BMPC administration improved behavioral index and oxidative stress injuries in Wistar rats exposed to ACR through MDA reduction and GSH content enhancement in the cerebral cortex.


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