Document Type : Review Article
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Objective: Baicalin and baicalein are natural flavonoids reported for the first time from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Recently, attention has been paid to these valuable flavonoids due to their promising effects. This paper aims to have a comprehensive review of their pharmacological effects.
Materials and Methods: An extensive search through scientific databases including Scopus, PubMed, and ISI Web of Science was established.
Results: According to literature, these compounds have been mainly effective in the treatment of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, hepatic and cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, and cancers through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Induction of apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibition of migration and metastasis are the main mechanisms for their cytotoxic and antitumor activities. Decreasing inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, regulating the metabolism of lipids, and decreasing fibrosis, apoptosis, and steatosis are their main hepatoprotective mechanisms. Inhibiting the development of cardiac fibrosis and reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are also the mechanisms suggested for cardioprotective activities. Decreasing the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and improving cognitive function and depressive-like behaviours are the main mechanisms for neurological and neurodegenerative activities.
Conclusion: The findings suggest the therapeutic potential of baicalin and baicalein. However, complementary research in different in vitro and in vivo models to investigate their mechanisms of action as well as clinical trials to evaluate their efficacy and safety are suggested.