The effects of cinnamon supplementation on adipokines and appetite-regulating hormones: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad,

2 Health Sciences Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

3 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective: Cinnamon is extracted from the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees. Recent studies have indicated that cinnamon is a safe and cost-effective treatment for improving body weight, lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. This systematic review aimed to summarize the effect of cinnamon supplementation on adipokines and appetite-regulating hormones.
Materials and Methods: This comprehensive literature search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to March 2022 without any limitation. The quality of eligible studies was evaluated through the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias.
Results: This systematic review included six clinical trial studies (363 participants), among which, only one study was performed on children, and two investigations were conducted on obese participants. A decreasing effect was found in the level of leptin and visfatin after cinnamon supplementation. Two out of three studies examined adiponectin levels and revealed non-significant effects of cinnamon consumption on this parameter. Two studies evaluated ghrelin levels and found an increase after cinnamon supplementation. The result of cinnamon supplementation on other biomarkers such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and resistin was inconsistent.
Conclusion: The result of this systematic review indicated the increasing effect of cinnamon supplementation on ghrelin levels and decreasing effect on leptin and visfatin levels. However, more clinical data are required to clarify the beneficial effects of cinnamon on adipokines levels due to the controversial findings of the studies.


Ajuwon KM, Spurlock ME. 2005. Adiponectin
inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB activation
and IL-6 production and increases
PPARγ2 expression in adipocytes. Am J
Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 288:
Akilen R, Tsiami A, Devendra D, Robinson N.
2012. Cinnamon in glycaemic control:
Systematic review and meta analysis. Clin
Nutr, 31: 609-615.
Bahram ME, Mogharnasi M. 2015. The effect
of twelve weeks high intensity training
interval (HIIT) on leptin levels and
obesity dependent factors among female
students suffering overweight. J sport
Biosci, 6: 451-465.
Blaschke F, Takata Y, Caglayan E, Law RE,
Hsueh WA. 2006. Obesity, peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor, and
atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 26: 28-
Bluher M. 2009. Adipose tissue dysfunction in
obesity. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes,
 117: 241-250.
Bluher M. 2014. Adipokines–removing road
blocks to obesity and diabetes therapy.
Mol Metab, 3: 230-240.
Borzoei A, Rafraf M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M.
2018. Cinnamon improves metabolic
factors without detectable effects on
adiponectin in women with polycystic
ovary syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 27:
Borzoei A, Rafraf M, Niromanesh S, Farzadi
L, Narimani F, Doostan F. 2018. Effects
of cinnamon supplementation on
antioxidant status and serum lipids in
women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J
Tradit Complement Med, 8: 128-133.
Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA.
2000. Insulin-like biological activity of
culinary and medicinal plant aqueous
extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem, 48:
Dehghan T, Abedi B. 2020. Effect of 12-week
body pump with consumption of
cinnamon and honey on resistin, visfatin
and insulin resistance in overweight
children. Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol,
15: 1-10.
Domingueti CP, Dusse LMSA, Das gracas
carvalho M, Desousa LP, Gomes KB,
Fernandes AP. 2016. Diabetes mellitus:
the linkage between oxidative stress,
inflammation, hypercoagulability and
vascular complications. J Diabetes
Complications, 30: 738-745.
Fantuzzi G. 2005. Adipose tissue, adipokines,
and inflammation. J Allergy Clin
Immunol, 115: 911-919.
Farr OM, Gavrieli A, Mantzoros CS. 2015.
Leptin applications in 2015: what have
we learned about leptin and obesity? Curr
Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 22: 353-
Firouzi S, Malekahmadi M, Djalali M,
Javanbakht MH, Shokuhi N, Yaseri M,
Abdolahi M, Zarezadeh M, Navashenaq
JG, Honarvar NM. 2021. Are levels of
adipokines and micronutrients different in
male adult smokers and non-smokers? A
case–control study. Endocrinología,
Diabetes y Nutrición, 69: 554-560
Fisman EZ, Tenenbaum A. 2014. Adiponectin:
a manifold therapeutic target for
metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and
coronary disease? Cardiovasc Diabetol,
13: 103.
Friedman JM. 2011. Leptin and the regulation
of body weigh. Keio J Med, 60: 1-9.
Fukuhara A, Matsuda M, Nishizawa M,
Gheflati et al.
AJP, Vol. 13, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2023 472
Segawa K, Tanaka M, Kishimoto K,
Matsuki Y, Murakami M, Ichisaka T,
Murakami H. 2005. Visfatin: a protein
secreted by visceral fat that mimics the
effects of insulin. Science, 307: 426-430.
Gruzdeva O, Borodkina D, Uchasova E,
Dyleva Y, Barbarash O. 2019. Leptin
resistance: underlying mechanisms and
diagnosis. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes,
12: 191-198.
Hadi A, Campbell MS, Hassani B,
Pourmasoumi M, Salehi-Sahlabadi A,
Hosseini SA. 2020. The effect of
cinnamon supplementation on blood
pressure in adults: A systematic review
and meta-analysis of randomized
controlled trials. Clin Nutr ESPEN, 36:
Hafizur RM, Hameed A, Shukrana M, Raza
SA, Chishti S, Kabir N, Siddiqui RA.
2015. Cinnamic acid exerts anti-diabetic
activity by improving glucose tolerance in
vivo and by stimulating insulin secretion
in vitro. Phytomedicine, 22: 297-300.
Haghighi AH, Yarahmadi H, Ildarabadi A,
Rafieepour A. 2012. The effect of aerobic
training on serum levels of ghrelin and
leptin in middle-aged men. Daneshvar
Med, 19: 79-90.
Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Juni P,
Moher D, Oxman AD, Savovic J, Schulz
KF, Weeks L, Sterne JA. 2011. The
Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for
assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.
BMJ, 343: d5928.
Hlebowicz J, Hlebowicz A, Lindstedt S,
Björgell O, Höglund P, Holst JJ,
Darwiche G, Almer L-O. 2009. Effects of
1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying,
satiety, and postprandial blood glucose,
insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic
polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and
ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr, 89: 815-821.
Jiang N, Sun R, Sun Q. 2014. Leptin signaling
molecular actions and drug target in
hepatocellular carcinoma. Drug Des
Devel Ther, 8: 2295-2302.
Kelly AS, Steinberger J, Olson TP, Dengel
DR. 2007. In the absence of weight loss,
exercise training does not improve
adipokines or oxidative stress in
overweight children. Metabolism, 56:
Khan A, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Anderson
R A. 1990. Insulin potentiating factor and
chromium content of selected foods and
spices. Biol Trace Elem Res, 24: 183-188.
Klok MD, Jakobsdottir S, Drent ML. 2007.
The role of leptin and ghrelin in the
regulation of food intake and body weight
in humans: a review. Obes Rev, 8: 21-34.
Kushiyama A, Shojima N, Ogihara T, Inukai
K, Sakoda H, Fujishiro M, Fukushima Y,
Anai M, Ono H, Horike N. 2005.
Resistin-like molecule β activates
MAPKs, suppresses insulin signaling in
hepatocytes, and induces diabetes,
hyperlipidemia, and fatty liver in
transgenic mice on a high fat diet. J Biol
Chem, 280: 42016-42025.
Lee J-S, Jeon S-M, Park E-M, Huh T-L, Kwon
O-S, Lee M-K, Choi M.-S. 2003.
Cinnamate supplementation enhances
hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant
defense systems in high cholesterol-fed
rats. J Med Food, 6: 183-191.
Lopes BP, Gaique TG, Souza LL, Paula GS,
Kluck GE, Atella GC, Gomes ACC,
Simas NK, Kuster RM, Ortiga-Carvalho
TM. 2015. Cinnamon extract improves
the body composition and attenuates
lipogenic processes in the liver and
adipose tissue of rats. Food & function, 6:
Maierean SM, Serban M-C, Sahebkar A,
Ursoniu S, Serban A, Penson P, Banach
M. 2017. The effects of cinnamon
supplementation on blood lipid
concentrations: A systematic review and
meta-analysis. J Clin Lipidol, 11: 1393-
Maleki S, Behpoor N, Tadibi V. 2020. Effect
of 8 weeks of resistance training and
supplementation of cinnamon on plasma
levels of leptin and adiponectin in
overweight women. J Pract Stud Biosci
Sport, 8: 132-142.
Martins C, Robertson MD, Morgan LM. 2008.
Effects of exercise and restrained eating
behaviour on appetite control. Proc Nutr
Soc, 67: 28-41.
Mohamed MM, El-Halim SSA, El-Metwally
EM. 2012. Insulin resistance and
adipocytokine levels in high fat high
fructose-fed growing rats: effects of
cinnamon. Egypt J Biochem Mol Biol,
30: 19-36.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG,
Group P. 2009. Reprint—preferred
Cinnamon and adipokine parameters
AJP, Vol. 13, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2023 473
reporting items for systematic reviews
and meta-analyses: the PRISMA
statement. Phys Ther, 89: 873-880.
Moschen AR, Kaser A, Enrich B, Mosheimer
B, Theurl M, Niederegger H, Tilg H.
2007. Visfatin, an adipocytokine with
proinflammatory and immunomodulating
properties. J Immunol, 178: 1748-1758.
Mousavi SM, Karimi E, Hajishafiee M,
Milajerdi A, Amini MR, Esmaillzadeh A.
2020. Anti-hypertensive effects of
cinnamon supplementation in adults: A
systematic review and dose-response
Meta-analysis of randomized controlled
trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 60: 3144-
Nauck MA, Meier JJ. 2018. Incretin
hormones: Their role in health and
disease. Diabetes Obes Metab, 20: 5-21.
Ouchi N, Kihara S, Arita Y, Okamoto Y,
Maeda K, Kuriyama H, Hotta K, Nishida
M, Takahashi M, Muraguchi M. 2000.
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma
protein, inhibits endothelial NF-κB
signaling through a cAMP-dependent
pathway. Circulation, 102: 1296-1301.
Pahlavani N, Sadeghi A, Rasad H, Azizi
soleiman F. 2014. Relation of
inflammation and oxidative stress with
blood glucose, lipids and BMI, fat mass
and body weight in people with type 2
diabetes. Diabetes Nurs, 2: 42-51.
Porta S, Otero-losada M, Kölliker frers RA,
Cosentino V, Kerzberg E, Capani F.
2021. Adipokines, cardiovascular risk,
and therapeutic management in obesity
and psoriatic arthritis. Front Immunol, 11:
Rahman S, Begum H, Rahman Z, Ara F, Iqbal
MJ, Yousuf AKM. 2013. Effect of
cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) as a
lipid lowering agent on
hypercholesterolemic rats. J Enam Med
Coll, 3: 94-98.
Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GS,
Galappaththy P, Constantine GR,
Katulanda P. 2013. Medicinal properties
of ‘true’cinnamon (Cinnamomum
zeylanicum): a systematic review. BMC
Complement Med Ther, 13: 275.
Rasad H, Dashtabi A, Khansari M,
Chaboksavar F, Pahlavani N, Maghsoudi
Z, Entezari MH. 2014. The effect of
honey consumption compared with
sucrose on blood pressure and fasting
blood glucose in healthy young subjects.
Glob J Med Res Stud, 1: 117-121.
Reilly MP, Lehrke M, Wolfe ML, Rohatgi A,
Lazar MA, Rader DJ. 2005. Resistin is an
inflammatory marker of atherosclerosis in
humans. Circulation, 111: 932-939.
Roffey B, Atwal A, Kubow S. 2006.
Cinnamon water extracts increase glucose
uptake but inhibit adiponectin secretion in
3T3‐ L1 adipose cells. Mol Nutr Food
Res, 50: 739-745.
Sangal A. 2011. Role of cinnamon as
beneficial antidiabetic food adjunct: a
review. Adv Appl Sci Res, 2: 440-450.
Scerif M, Goldstone AP, Korbonits M. 2011.
Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 340: 15-25.
Sethi, JK, Vidal-puig A. 2005. Visfatin: the
missing link between intra-abdominal
obesity and diabetes? Trends Mol Med,
11: 344-347.
Sfar M, Hfaiedh K, Ben-Mahrez K, Skhiri H,
Rayana C, Chemli R, Mami F, Fethi,
Slama B. 2019. Effect of cinnamon
supplementation on resistin and ghrelin in
obese diabetic men. Indian J Tradit
knowl, 8: 694-701.
Shalaby MA, Saifan HY. 2014. Some
pharmacological effects of cinnamon and
ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats. J
Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 3: 144-149.
Shan B, Cai Y-Z, Brooks JD, Corke H. 2007.
Antibacterial properties and major
bioactive components of cinnamon stick
(Cinnamomum burmannii): activity
against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. J
Agric Food Chem, 55: 5484-5490.
Mohammad SH, Fadhil NN, Mahmood MD.
2021. Effects of metformin and cinnamon
on 1,5 anhydroglucitol, adiponectin and
ghrelin on newly diagnosed type 2
diabetes mellitus patients. Jordan Med J,
55: 225-233.
Souri R, Hosni ranjbar S, Wahhabi K,
Shakheiz F. 2011. The effect of aerobic
exercise on serum RBP4 and insulin
resistance index in type 2 diabetic
patients. Iran J Diabetes Metab, 10: 388-
Van de voorde J, Pauwels B, Boydens C,
Decaluwe K. 2013. Adipocytokines in
relation to cardiovascular disease.
Metabolism, 62: 1513-1521.
Yazdanpanah Z, Azadi-Yazdi M, Hooshmandi
H, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, Salehi-Abargouei
Gheflati et al.
AJP, Vol. 13, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2023 474
A. 2020. Effects of cinnamon
supplementation on body weight and
composition in adults: A systematic
review and meta-analysis of controlled
clinical trials. Phytother Res, 34: 448-463.