An animal model study of osteochondral defect repair by human adipose stem cells and pomegranate fruit hydroalchoholic extract

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Genetic and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Objective: Articular cartilage damages do not repair spontaneously. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to repair cartilage damage. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) members are the known induction factors in chondrogenic differentiation. However, hypertrophy of the chondrocytes resulting from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induction by TGF-β is inevitable. Pomegranate fruit contains many ingredients which are useful in ensuring the health of organs. This study was designed to investigate the Pomegranate Fruit hydroalchoholic Extract (PFE) capability in human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) differentiation into the chondrocytes on fibrin scaffold.
Materials and Methods: Pomegranate fruit hydroalchoholic extract (PFE) was prepared. hASCs were isolated, expanded, labeled, and seeded on the fibrin scaffold. The constructs were divided into three groups including TGF-β3, PFE, and control. The constructs were induced for 14 days, then, the MTT assay, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and histochemistry assessments were run, and finally, the constructs were transplanted into the knee defect of rats. The gross and histological assessments of the transplants were done after 8 weeks.
Results: The viability rate, COL2A1, Aggrecan (ACAN) and COL10A1 genes expression levels, and histological criterion of the PFE samples were significantly higher than that of the control. The macroscopic grades and histological results of the PFE samples were close to that of the TGF-β3. The number of positive cells for COLІI protein were higher significantly in the PFE group than the control.
Conclusion: PFE was effective in the chondrogenic induction of hASCs. Further studies are needed to find out the events of the chondrogenic induction using PFE.