Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran,

2 Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I. R Iran

3 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran


Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes.
Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.  
Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction.
Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.


Main Subjects

Abu-Irmaileh BE, Afifi FU. 2003. Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs. J Ethnopharmacol, 89: 193-197.
Adams RP. 1995. Identification of essential oil components by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. Allured Publishing.
Alaadin AM, Al-Khateeb E, Jäger AK. 2007. Antibacterial activity of the Iraqi Rheum ribes root. Pharm Biol, 45: 688-690.
Alan Y, Erbil N, Digrak M. 2012. In vivo antimicrobial activity of Rheum ribes extracts obtained from various plant parts from Turkey. JOSUNAS, 1: 23-29.
Andiç S, Tunçtürk Y, Ocak E, Köse S. 2009. Some chemical characteristics of edible wild Rhubarb species (Rheum ribes L.). Res J Agric  Biol Sci, 5: 973-977.
Baytop T. 1999. Therapy with Medical Plants in Turkey. Rheum ribes L. in T. Baytop (Ed), Istanbul (Turkey): Nobel Tıp Publication Press. 1: 319-320.
Cakilcioglu U, Turkoglu I. 2010. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Sivrice (Elazığ-Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol, 132: 165-175.
Choi WG, Cho YJ, Chu JP. 2002. In vitro effect of Sophora flavescens on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis Donne. Infect Chemother, 34: 248-254.
Davies NW. 1990. Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpens and sesqueterpens on methyl silicon, and Carbowax 20m phases. J Chromatogr, 503: 1-24.
Dehkardy Q. 2002. Rheum palmatum L. Iranian herbal Pharmacopoeia. 1st ed. Tehran: Health Ministry Press.
Edwards DI. 1993. Nitroimidazole drugs-action and resistance mechanisms II. Mechanisms of resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother, 31: 201-210.
Ertabaklar H, Kivcak B, Mert T, TÖZ SÖ. 2009. In vitro activity of Arbutus unedo leaf extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. Türkiye parazitol derg, 33: 263-264.
Falah Hosseini H, Heshmat R, Mohseni F, Jamshidi A, Alavi S, Ahvazi M, Larijani M. 2008. The efficacy of Rheum ribes L. stalk extract on lipid profile in Hypercholesterolemic type II Diabetic patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo - controlled, clinical trial. J Med Plant Res, 7: 92-97.
Fazli-bazaz BS, Khajehkaramadin M, Shokouhizadeh HR. 2005. In vitro antibacterial activity of Rheum ribes extract obtained from various plant parts against clinical isolates of Gram-negative pathogens. IJPR, 4: 87-91.
Gholamhoseinian A, Moradi M, Sharifi-far F. 2009. Screening the methanol extracts of some Iranian plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. RPS, 4: 105-112.
Gholamhoseinian A, Moradi M, Sharifi-far F, Abbasi Oshaghi E. 2012. Identification of anticholinesterase compound from Berbers integrima, Rheum ribes and Levisticum officinale. Res Pharm Sci, 7: 754-755.
Ghorbany M, Salary M. 2005. Application of plant products to control some soil borne fungal pathogens. fourth world congress on allelopathy.
Grossman JH, Galask RP. 1990. Persistent vaginitis caused by metronidazole-resistant trichomonas. Obstet Gynecol, 76: 521-522.
Hadjzadeh MR, Parsaee H, Sadeghian A. 2004. Cholesterol lowering effect of Rheum ribes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. MJIRI, 18: 277-280.
Hajzadeh MAR, Jafari GH. 2004. The effects of Rheum ribes on serum lipids in Hyperlipidemic rabbit. Koomesh, 5: 19-27.
Hassani S, Asghari G, Yousefi H,Kazemian A, Rafieiean M,Yousofi Darani H. 2013. Effects of different extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Trichomonas vaginalis parasite in culture medium. Adv Biomed Res, 2: 47-48.
Hudson JB, Lee MK, Sener B, Erdemoglu N. 2000. Antiviral activities in extracts of Turkish medicinal plants. Pharm Biol, 38: 171-175.
Kasabri V, Afifi F, Hamdan I. 2011. In vitro and in vivo acute antihyperglycemic effects of five selected indigenous plants from Jordan used in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol, 133: 888-896.
Kim DJ, Cho YJ, Chu JP. 2003. In vitro effect of Kalopanaxsaponin A on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Chemother, 35: 446-453.
Meriçli AH, Tuzlaci E. 1990. Constituents of Rheum ribes, Fitoterapia, 61:4, 375.
Miyazawa M, Minamino Y, Kameoka H. 1996. Volatile components of the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum L. Flavour Frag J, 11: 57-60.
Moon T, Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh HMA. 2006. Antiparasitic activity of two Lavandula essential oils against Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Hexamita inflata. Parasitol res, 99: 722-728.
Muhit A, Tareq M, Sarker A, Basak D, Islam MS. 2010. Isolation and identification of compounds from the leaf extract of Dillenia indica Linn. Bangladesh Pharm J, 13: 49-50.
Munzuroglu O, Karatas F, Gur N. 2000. A study of the levels of vitamins A, E and C and Selenium in Rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.). Turk J Biol, 24: 397-404.
Naqishbandi AM, Josefsen K, Pedersen ME, Jäger AK. 2009. Hypoglycemic activity of Iraqi Rheum ribes root extract. Pharm Biol, 47: 380-383.
Narcisi EM, Secor WE. 1996. In-vitro effect of Tinidazole and Furazolidone on metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis.Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40: 1121-1125.
Nyirjesy P, Peyton C, Weitz MV, Mathew L, Culhane JF. 2006. Causes of chronic vaginitis: analysis of a prospective database of affected women. Obstet Gynecol, 108: 1185-1186.
Octay M, Yildirim A, Bilaloglu V, Gulcin I. 2007. Antioxidant activity of different parts of isgin (Rheum ribes L.). Asian J Chem, 19: 3047-3055.
Ozcan MM, Dursun N, Arslan D. 2007. Some nutritional properties of Prangos ferulacea L. lindl and Rheum ribes L. stems growing wild in Turkey. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 58: 162-167.
Ozturk M, Aydogmus-ozturk F, Emin-duru M. 2007. Antioxidant activity of stem and root extracts of Rhubarb (Rheum ribes): An edible medicinal plant. Food Chem, 103: 623-630.
Park CU, Lee GM, Kim YC, Ryu JS, Kim TK, Kim JH, Kim MK, Song HC, Park H. 2005. Antitrichomonas activity of herb-medicine generally used in Dong-Eui-Bo-Kham. Korean J Oriental Physiol Pathol, 19: 191-195.
Park WS, Jung Y, Chu JP. 2004. Growth inhibitory effects of various herbal extracts on metronidazole resistant strain of Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Chemother, 36: 97-10.
Patel SR, Wiese W, Patel SC, Ohl C, Byrd JC, Estrada CA. 2000. Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal trichomoniasis. Obstet Gynecol, 8: 248-257.
Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G. 1998. Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev, 11: 300-301.
Ryang YS, Im JA, Kim I, Cho YK, Sung HJ, Park JY, Min DY, Ha JY. 2001. Antiparasitic effects of a herb extract from Gentiana scabra var buergeri on Trichomonas vaginalis. J Biomed Lab Sci, 7: 53-58.
Samochowiec E, Urbanska L, Manka W, Stolarska E. 1979. Assessment of the action of Calendula officinalis and Echinacea angustifolia extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. Wiad Parazytol, 1: 77-81.
Sayyah M, Boostani H, Malayeri A, Siahpoosh A. 2011. Efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Rheum ribes L. in treatment of Obsessive compulsive disorder: A double blind clinical trial. J Pharm Biomed Sci, 1: 57- 61.
Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malayeri A. 2009. Efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Rheum ribes L. in treatment of major depressive disorder.   J Med Plants Res, 3: 573-575.
Schwebke JR, Burgess D. 2004. Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev, 17: 794-795.
Shokravi A, Agha Nasiri K. 1997. Synthesis of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-Octahydro-9- ethoxy-10-hydroxy-1-anthracenone (OEHA). Iran J Chem Chem Eng, 16: 10-15.
Soffar S, Metwali D, Abdel-Aziz S, El-Wakil H, Saad G. 2001. Evaluation of the effect of a plant alkaloid (berberine derived from Berberis aristata) on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. J Egypt Soc Parasitol, 31: 893-904.
Tabata M, Sezik E, Honda G, Yesilada E, Fuki H, Goto K, Ikeshiro Y. 1994.Traditional medicine in Turkey III. folk medicine in East Anatolia, Van and Bitlis provinces. Int J Pharmacogn, 32: 3-12.
Taran M, Rezaeian M, Izaddoost M. 2006. In vitro antitrichomonas activity of Allium hirtifloium (Persian Shallot) in comparison with metronidazole. Iran J Public Health, 35: 92-94.
Tonkal A. 2009. In Vitro Antitrichomonal Effect of Nigella sativa Aqueous Extract and Wheat Germ Agglutinin. JKAU: Med Sci, 16: 17-34.
Tosun F, Akyu¨z-Kızılay C. 2003. Anthraquinones and Flavonoids from Rheum ribes. J Fac Pharm Ankara, 32: 31–35.
Tuzlaci E, Meriçli AH, Some studies on Iskın (Rheum ribes) and its distribution in Turkey, 1992, Proceedings of the 9th symposium on plant drugs (Pub No. 641, pp. 336-341), Eskisehir, Turkey: Anatolia University Press.
Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. 2001. Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa. Clin Microbiol Rev, 14: 150-151.
Vermani K, Garg S. 2002. Herbal medicines for sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.  Ethnopharmacology, 80: 49-66.
Zargari A. 1991. Medicinal plant. 5th edition, 4: 233-241, Tehran University publication.