Fraction from Calliandra portoricensis reduces 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Wistar rats

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Department of Biochemistry, BOWEN University, Iwo, Nigeria


Objective: Calliandra portoricensis (CP) is used in Nigeria for the treatment of breast diseases. We investigated the effects of fraction from CP on 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumours.
Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats (40) were allotted into five equal groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received DMBA (50mg/kg), groups 3 and 4 received DMBA and were treated with CP at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively, while the fifth group received DMBA and vincristine (0.5mg/kg). The DMBA was injected intraperitoneally once while vincristine and CP were given twice and thrice per week, respectively.
Results: Administration of DMBA caused a significant decrease in body weight gain by 52%. In addition, DMBA significantly increased organo-somatic weight of mammary gland by 4.0 folds. Moreso, DMBA significantly increased inflammatory and oxidative stress markers; serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by 27%, 18% and 435%, respectively. Similarly, mammary NO (nitric oxide) and LPO were increased by 468% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, DMBA decreased the levels of apoptotic markers; BAX, caspases-3 and -9 by 20%, 15% and 18%, and mammary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-s-peroxidase (GPx) by 45%, 51% and 68%, respectively. Histology revealed gland with malignant epithelial cells and high nucleo-cytoplasm in DMBA-administered rats. Treatment with CP at 100 mg/kg decreased LPO, MPO, IL-1β and NO by 28%, 35%; 78% and 85%, respectively, and ameliorated DMBA-induced cyto-architectural anomalies.
Conclusion: Fraction of CP protects mammary gland from DMBA insults via antioxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.


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