Document Type : Original Research Article
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Department of Biochemistry, BOWEN University, Iwo, Nigeria
Objective: Calliandra portoricensis (CP) is used in Nigeria for the treatment of breast diseases. We investigated the effects of fraction from CP on 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumours.
Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats (40) were allotted into five equal groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received DMBA (50mg/kg), groups 3 and 4 received DMBA and were treated with CP at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively, while the fifth group received DMBA and vincristine (0.5mg/kg). The DMBA was injected intraperitoneally once while vincristine and CP were given twice and thrice per week, respectively.
Results: Administration of DMBA caused a significant decrease in body weight gain by 52%. In addition, DMBA significantly increased organo-somatic weight of mammary gland by 4.0 folds. Moreso, DMBA significantly increased inflammatory and oxidative stress markers; serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by 27%, 18% and 435%, respectively. Similarly, mammary NO (nitric oxide) and LPO were increased by 468% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, DMBA decreased the levels of apoptotic markers; BAX, caspases-3 and -9 by 20%, 15% and 18%, and mammary superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-s-peroxidase (GPx) by 45%, 51% and 68%, respectively. Histology revealed gland with malignant epithelial cells and high nucleo-cytoplasm in DMBA-administered rats. Treatment with CP at 100 mg/kg decreased LPO, MPO, IL-1β and NO by 28%, 35%; 78% and 85%, respectively, and ameliorated DMBA-induced cyto-architectural anomalies.
Conclusion: Fraction of CP protects mammary gland from DMBA insults via antioxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.