Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit.

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Zahedan, I. R. Iran

2 Department of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Zahedan,I. R. Iran


Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of  S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development.
Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay.
Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml).
Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.


Main Subjects

Adams RP. 2001. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy, Allured Publishing Co, Carol Stream IL.
Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck A, Idaomar M. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils-A review, Food Chem Toxicol, 46: 446-475.
Benchaar C, Calsamiglia S, Chaves AV, Fraser GR, Colombatto D, McAllister TA, Beaucheminc KA. 2008. A review of plant-derived essential oils in ruminant nutrition and production, Anim Feed Sci Tech, 145: 209-228.
Bor NL. 1970. Flora Iranica-Gramineae, Issue 70, Naturhistorisches Museum.
Cole IB, Saxena PK, Murch SJ. 2007. Medicinal biotechnology in the genus scutellaria, In vitro
     Cell Dev Biol-Plant, 43: 318-327.
Dai ZJ, Gao J, Li ZF, Ji ZZ, Kang HF, Guan HT,
     Diao Y, Wang BF, Wang XJ. 2011. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Scutellaria barbate extract on murine liver cancer, Molecules, 16: 4389-4400.
Fang S, Lin C, Zhang Q, Wang L, Lin P, Zhang J, Wang X. 2012. Anticancer potential of aqueous extract of Alocasia macrorrhiza against hepatic cancer in vitro and in vivo, J Ethnopharmacol, 141: 947-956.
Ghannadi A, Mehregan I. 2003. Essential oil of one of the Iranian Skullcaps, Zeitschrift Naturforschung C, 58: 316-318.
Hicsonmez U, Erees FS, Ozdemir C, Ozdemir A, Cam S. 2009. Determination of major and minor elements in the Malva sylvestris L. from Turkey using ICP-OES techniques, Biol Trace Elem Res, 128: 248-257.
Jung HS, Kim MH, Gwak NG, Im YS, Lee KY, Sohn Y, Choi H, Yang WM. 2012. Antiallergic effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on inflammation in vivo and in vitro, J Ethnopharmacol, 141: 345-349.
Lin CC, Shieh DE. 1996. In vivo hepatoprotective effect of Baicalein, Baicalin and Wogonin from Scutellaria rivularis, Phytother Res, 10: 651-654.
Liu YF, Gao F, Li XW, Jia RH, Meng XD, Zhao R, Jing YY, Wang Y, Jiang W. 2012. The anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of baicalin on pilocarpine-induced epileptic model in rats, Neurochem Res, 37: 1670-1680.
Lu Y, Joerger R, Wu C. 2011. Study of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, J Agric Food Chem, 59: 10934-10942.
Maathuis FJM. 2009. Physiological functions of mineral macronutrients, Curr Opin Plant Biol, 12: 250-258.
Marschner H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants, Academic Press.
Pant CC, Melkani AB, Mohan L, Dev V. 2012. Composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from Scutellaria grossa Wall ex Benth, Nat Prod Res, 26: 190-192.
Rechcigl JE, Payne G. 1990. Comparison of a microwave digestion system to other digestion methods for plant tissue analysis, Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal, 21: 2209.
Rosselli S, Bruno M, Simmonds MSJ, Senatore F, Rigano D, Formisano C. 2007. Volatile constituents of Scutellaria rubicunda Hornem subsp. linnaeana (Caruel) Rech (Lamiaceae) endemic in Sicily, Biochem Syst Ecol, 35: 797-800.
Shang X, He X, He X, Li M, Zhang R, Fan P, Zhang Q, Jia Z. 2010. The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review, J Ethnopharmacol, 128: 279-313.
Sheng JP, Chen HR, Shen L. 2009. Determination of six mineral elements in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds of Scutellaria baicalensis by FAAS, Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, 29: 519-521.
Skaltsa HD, Lazari DM, Mavromati AS Tiligada EA, Constantinidis TA. 2000a. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Scutellaria albida L. ssp. albida from Greece, Planta Medica, 66: 672-674.
Skaltsa HD, Lazari DM, Kyriazopoulos P, Golegou S, Triantaphyllidis S, Sokovic M, Kypriotakis Z. 2005b. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Scutellaria sieberia Benth. and Scutellaria rupestris Boiss. et Heldr. ssp. adenotricha (Boiss. et Heldr.) Greuter et Burdet from Greece, J Essent Oil Res, 17: 232-235.
Tayarani-Najaran Z, Mousavi SH, Vahdati-Mashhadian N, Emami SA, Parsaee H. 2012. Scutellaria litwinowii induces apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in human promyelocytic leukemia cells, Nutr Cancer, 64: 80-88.
Yaghmai MS. 1988. Volatile constituents of Scutellaria lateriflora L, Flavour Frag J,3: 27-31.
Ye CL, Huang Q. 2012. Extraction of polysaccharides from herbal Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Ban-Zhi-Lian) and their antioxidant activity, Carbohyd Polym, 89: 1131-1137.
Yin X, Zhou J, Jie C, Xing D, Zhang Y. 2004. Anticancer activity and mechanism of Scutellaria barbata extract on human lung cancer cell line A549, Life Sci, 75: 2233-2244.
Yu J, Lei J, Yu H, Cai X, Zou G. 2004. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Scutellaria barbata, Phytochemistry, 65: 881-884.
Yu JQ, Liu HB, Lei JC, Tan W, Hu X, Zou G.
      2007. Antitumor activity of chloroform fraction of Scutellaria barbata and its active constituents, Phytother Res, 21: 817-822.
Yuan Y, Liu YJ, Luo YJ, Huang L, Chen S, Yang Z, Qin S. 2011. High temperature effects on flavones accumulation and antioxidant system in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi cells, Afr J Biotech,10: 5182-5192.
Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa
     MR, AbuBakar S. 2012. Novel antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus, BMC Complem Altern Med, 12: 214-223.
Zhang N, Van Crombruggen K, Holtappels G, Bachert C. 2012. A herbal composition of Scutellaria baicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus shows potent anti-inflammatory effects in an ex vivo human mucosal tissue model, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 13: 673145-673153.
Zhu YX, Luo X, Zhao DP, Zhai ZX, Guo YH. 2011. Analysis of the content of mineral elements in Scutellaria baicalensis, skullcap tea and its solution, Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, 31: 3112-3114.