Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hepato-protective effect of bee bread in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Document Type : Original Research Article


Laboratory of Natural Substances, Pharmacology, Environment, Modeling, Health and Quality of life (SNAMOPEQ), Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco


Objective: This study aims to shed a new light on pharmacological effects of bee bread as a product of the hive through examination of the effect of itsethyl acetate extract onhyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and liver dysfunction induced by streptozotocin.
Materials and Methods: The bee bread ethyl acetate extract was analyzed for total phenolics, flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities using total antioxidant capacity, 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and reducing power assays. In vivo study was carried out on thirty-six rats divided into control or diabetic rats, received daily for 15 days distilled water (10 ml/kg), or ethyl acetate extract of bee bread (100 mg/kg), or glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg). The protective effect of bee bread against metabolic changes induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats, was evaluated by checking the blood glucose levels, lipid profile, atherogenic index, coronary risk index, cardiovascular risk index, body weight and hepatic enzyme markers in normal and diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug to compare the efficacy of bee bread.
Results: The results indicate that bee bread ethyl acetate extract has a high content of phenolics and flavonoids and a strong antioxidant activity. Glycemia, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes were modified in diabetic rats. These modifications were ameliorated after the treatment withbee bread extract which was more potent than glibenclamide.
Conclusion: In summary, ethyl acetate extract of bee bread possesses effective glycemia lowering effects and representsa natural source of new bioactive molecules for future therapy of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and liver dysfunction.


Amri FSA, Hossain MA. 2018. Comparison of
total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant
Therapeutic effect of bee bread in diabetes
AJP, Vol. 11, No. 4, Jul-Aug 2021 351
potential of local and imported ripe bananas.
Egypt J Basic Appl Sci, 5: 245-251.
Bakour M, Al-Waili NS, El Menyiy N, Imtara
H, Figuira AC, Al-Waili T, Lyoussi B. 2017.
Antioxidant activity and protective effect of
bee bread (honey and pollen) in aluminuminduced anemia, elevation of inflammatory
makers and hepato-renal toxicity. J Food Sci
Technol, 54: 4205-4212.
Bakour M, Fernandes Â, Barros L, Sokovic M,
Ferreira ICFR, Lyoussi B. 2019. Bee bread
as a functional product: Chemical
composition and bioactive properties. LWT,
109: 276-282.
Barene I, Daberte I, Siksna S. 2014.
Investigation of bee bread and development
of its dosage forms. Med Teor Ir Prakt, 21:
Chandramohan G, Al-Numair KS, Sridevi M,
Pugalendi KV. 2010. Antihyperlipidemic
activity of 3-hydroxymethyl xylitol, a novel
antidiabetic compound isolated from
Casearia esculenta (Roxb.) root, in
streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol
Toxicol, 24: 95-101.
Chatterjee S, Khunti K, Davies MJ. 2017. Type
2 diabetes. The Lancet, 389: 2239-2251.
Chukwunonso Obi B, Chinwuba Okoye T,
Okpashi VE, Nonye Igwe C, Olisah
Alumanah E. 2015. Comparative study of
the antioxidant effects of metformin,
glibenclamide, and repaglinide in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. J Diabetes Res, 2016:
Daniel OO, Adeoye AO, Ojowu J, Olorunsogo
OO. 2018. Inhibition of liver mitochondrial
membrane permeability transition pore
opening by quercetin and vitamin E in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 504: 460-
de Wet H, Proks P. 2015. Molecular action of
sulphonylureas on KATP channels: a real
partnership between drugs and nucleotides.
Biochem Soc Trans, 43: 901-907.
DiMeglio LA, Evans-Molina C, Oram RA.
2018. Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 391:
Dimo T, Rakotonirina SV, Tan PV, Azay J,
Dongo E, Kamtchouing P, Cros G. 2007.
Effect of Sclerocarya birrea
(Anacardiaceae) stem bark methylene
chloride/methanol extract on streptozotocindiabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 110: 434-
Dolezal AG, Toth AL. 2018. Feedbacks
between nutrition and disease in honey bee
health. Curr Opin Insect Sci, 26: 114-119.
El Hilaly J, Lyoussi B. 2002. Hypoglycaemic
effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of
Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin
diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 80: 109-
Erejuwa OO, Nwobodo NN, Akpan JL, Okorie
UA, Ezeonu CT, Ezeokpo BC, Nwadike KI,
Erhiano E, Abdul Wahab MS, Sulaiman SA.
2016. Nigerian honey ameliorates
hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Nutrients, 8: 95.
Farokhi F, Kaffash Farkhad N, Togmechi A,
Soltani Band K. 2012. Preventive effects of
Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindle on liver
damage of diabetic rats induced by alloxan.
Avicenna J Phytomedicine, 2: 63-71.
Garg A. 1994. Management of dyslipidemia in
IDDM patients. Diabetes Care, 17: 224-234.
Hamilton KE, Rekman JF, Gunnink LK,
Busscher BM, Scott JL, Tidball AM,
Stehouwer NR, Johnecheck GN, Looyenga
BD, Louters LL. 2018. Quercetin inhibits
glucose transport by binding to an exofacial
site on GLUT1. Biochimie, 151: 107-114.
Kazemian M, Abad M, Haeri MR, Ebrahimi M,
Heidari R. 2015. Anti-diabetic effect of
Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic
rats. Avicenna J Phytomedicine, 5: 325-332.
Kieliszek M, Piwowarek K, Kot AM, Błażejak
S, Chlebowska-Śmigiel A, Wolska I. 2018.
Pollen and bee bread as new health-oriented
products: A review. Trends Food Sci
Technol, 71: 170-180.
Kong KW, Mat-Junit S, Aminudin N, Ismail A,
Abdul-Aziz A. 2012. Antioxidant activities
and polyphenolics from the shoots of
Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Spreng in a
polar to apolar medium system. Food Chem,
134: 324-332.
Li Y, Wen S, Kota BP, Peng G, Li GQ,
Yamahara J, Roufogalis BD. 2005. Punica
granatum flower extract, a potent αglucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial
hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
J Ethnopharmacol, 99: 239-244.
Liang W, Zhang D, Kang J, Meng X, Yang J,
Yang L, Xue N, Gao Q, Han S, Gou X. 2018.
Protective effects of rutin on liver injury in
type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Biomed
Pharmacother, 107: 721-728.
Mărghitaş LA, Stanciu OG, Dezmirean DS,
Bobiş O, Popescu O, Bogdanov S, Campos
Bakour et al.
AJP, Vol. 11, No. 4, Jul-Aug 2021 352
MG. 2009. In vitro antioxidant capacity of
honeybee-collected pollen of selected floral
origin harvested from Romania. Food
Chem, 115: 878-883.
Miguel M da G, Doughmi O, Aazza S, Antunes
D, Lyoussi B. 2014. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and acetylcholinesterase
inhibitory activities of propolis from
different regions of Morocco. Food Sci
Biotechnol, 23: 313-322.
Mujwah AA, Mohammed MA, Ahmed MH.
2010. First isolation of a flavonoid from
Juniperus procera using ethyl acetate
extract. Arab J Chem, 3: 85-88.
Nandhini ATA, Thirunavukkarasu V,
Anuradha CV. 2004. Stimulation of glucose
utilization and inhibition of protein
glycation and AGE products by taurine.
Acta Physiol Scand, 181: 297-303.
Padmanabhan P, Jangle SN. 2012. Evaluation
of DPPH radical scavenging activity and
reducing power of four selected medicinal
plants and their combinations. Int J Pharm
Sci Drug Res, 4: 143-146.
Pari L, Venkateswaran S. 2004. Protective role
of Phaseolus vulgaris on changes in the fatty
acid composition in experimental diabetes. J
Med Food, 7: 204-209.
Postic C, Dentin R, Girard J. 2004. Role of the
liver in the control of carbohydrate and lipid
homeostasis. Diabetes Metab, 30: 398-408.
Ren B, Qin W, Wu F, Wang S, Pan C, Wang L,
Zeng B, Ma S, Liang J. 2016. Apigenin and
naringenin regulate glucose and lipid
metabolism, and ameliorate vascular
dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats. Eur J
Pharmacol, 773: 13-23.
Silva TMS, dos Santos FP, EvangelistaRodrigues A, da Silva EMS, da Silva GS, de
Novais JS, dos Santos F de AR, Camara,
CA. 2013. Phenolic compounds,
melissopalynological, physicochemical
analysis and antioxidant activity of jandaíra
(Melipona subnitida) honey. J Food
Compos Anal, 29: 10-18.
Singh V, Singh SP, Singh M, Gupta AK, Kumar
A. 2015. Combined potentiating action of
phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum
tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic
and insulinomimetic effect using In Vivo rat
and in vitro NIH/3T3 cell culture system.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 175: 2542-2563.
Srinivasan P, Vijayakumar S, Kothandaraman
S, Palani M. 2018. Anti-diabetic activity of
quercetin extracted from Phyllanthus
emblica L. fruit: In silico and in vivo
approaches. J Pharm Anal, 8: 109-118.
Szkudelski T. 2001. The mechanism of alloxan
and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat
pancreas. Physiol Res, 50: 537-546.
Vaudo AD, Tooker JF, Grozinger CM, Patch
HM. 2015. Bee nutrition and floral resource
restoration. Curr Opin Insect Sci, 10: 133-
Zarei A, Vaezi G, Malekirad AA, Abdollahi M.
2015. Effects of ethanol extract of Salvia
hydrangea on hepatic and renal functions of
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Avicenna J Phytomedicine, 5: 138-147.
Zengin G, Arkan T, Aktumsek A, Guler GO,
Cakmak YS. 2013. A study on antioxidant
capacities and fatty acid compositions of
two Daphne species from Turkey: New
sources of antioxidants and essential fatty
acids: antioxidant capacity and fatty acid
composition. J Food Biochem, 37: 646-653.