Potential angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Iranian traditional plants described by Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 University of South Florida College of Public Health, Tampa, FL USA and Michigan State University Institute for Integrative Toxicology, East Learning; MI USA.

4 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Objective: Hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disorders. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in hypertension; therefore, inhibition of ACE in treatment of chronically elevated blood pressure is an important therapeutic approach. In the current review, we have provided information from Persian Traditional Plants described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and a number of more current scientific databases, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the following six plants: Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Jasminum grandiflorum, Tribulus terrestris, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vitis vinifera.
Materials and Methods: A literature search was conducted and information on different traditional plants used for hypertension was collected from the Canon of Medicine and several other databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science.
Results: The present article highlights the antihypertensive potential of the above-noted six plants. Administered doses, manner of consumption, types of extracts, preparations and derivatives, personal habits, and other geographic and epidemiologic variables have an important role in the potential efficacy of these plants.
Conclusion: Recent studies indicated a significant correlation between the traditional use of Persian plants to reduce blood pressure and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity.


Main Subjects

Abirami P, Rajendran A. 2011. GC-MS analysis of tribulus terrestris. Asian J Plant Sci Res, 1: 13-16.
Adisakwattana S, Moonrat J, Srichairat S, Chanasit C, Tirapongporn H, Chanathong B, Ngamukote S, Mauml K, Sapwarobol S. 2010. Lipid-lowering mechanisms of grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L) and its antihyperlidemic activity. J Med Plant Res, 4: 2113-2120.
Afonso J, Passos CP, Coimbra MA, Silva C M, Soares-Da-Silva P. 2013. Inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) on the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme. LWT-food Sci Technol, 54: 265-270.
Agrawal M, Nandini D, Sharma V, Chauhan N. 2010. Herbal remedies for treatment of hypertension. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 1: 1-21.
Akilen R, Pimlott Z, Tsiami A, Robinson N. 2013. Effect of short-term administration of cinnamon on blood pressure in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, 29: 1192-1196.
Aldini G, Carini M, Piccoli A, Rossoni G, Facino RM. 2003. Procyanidins from grape seeds protect endothelial cells from peroxynitrite damage and enhance endothelium-dependent relaxation in human artery: new evidences for cardio-protection. Life Sci, 73: 2883-2898.
Arun APM, Satish S, Anima P. 2016. Phytopharmacological profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn (Oleaceae). Chin J Integr Med, 22: 311-320.
Arzanlou M, Bohlooli S. 2010. Introducing of green garlic plant as a new source of allicin. Food chem, 120: 179-183.
Asdaq S, Inamdar M. 2010. Potential of garlic and its active constituent, S-allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in presence of captopril. Phytomedicine, 17: 1016-1026.
Aviello G, Abenavoli L, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA, Lembo F, Romano B, Capasso F. 2009. Garlic: empiricism or science? Nat prod commun, 4: 1785-1796.
Baharvand-Ahmadi B, Asadi-Samani M. 2016. A mini-review on the most important effective medicinal plants to treat hypertension in ethnobotanical evidence of Iran. J Nephropharmacol, 6: 3.
Barbosa-Filho JM, Martins VK, Rabelo LA, Moura MD, Silva MS, Cunha EV, Souza MF, Almeida RN, Medeiros IA. 2006. Natural products inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE): A review between 1980-2000. Rev Bras Farmacogn, 16: 421-446.
Basha SM, Musingo M, Colova VS. 2004. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of muscadine and bunch grape wines. Afr J Biotechnol, 3: 523-528.
Basheer L, Kerem Z. 2015. Interactions between CYP3A4 and dietary polyphenols. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015: 15.
Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. 2014. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed, 4: 1-14.
Biesinger S, Michaels H, Quadros A, Qian Y, Rabovsky A, Badger R, Jalili T. 2016. A combination of isolated phytochemicals and botanical extracts lowers diastolic blood pressure in a randomized controlled trial of hypertensive subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr, 70: 10-16.
Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Carini M, Aldini G, Maffei Facino R. 1997. Biological activity of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera L. BioFactors, 6: 429-431.
Borde P, Mohan M, Kasture S. 2011. Effect of myricetin on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats. Nat Prodt Res, 25: 1549-1559.
Capraz M, Dilek M, Akpolat T. 2007. Garlic, hypertension and patient education. Int J Cardiol, 121: 130-131.
Chaturvedi AP, Kumar M, Tripathi Y. B. 2013. Efficacy of Jasminum grandiflorum L. leaf extract on dermal wound healing in rats. Int Wound J, 10: 675-682.
Chaturvedi AP, Tripathi YB. 2011. Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. Inflammopharmacology, 19: 273-281.
Chhatre S, Nesari T, Somani G, Kanchan D, Sathaye S. 2014. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris. Pharmacogn Rev, 8: 45.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT. 2003. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension, 42: 1206-1252.
Chu WK, Cheung SC, Lau RA, Benzie IF, Wachtel-Galor S. 2011. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects. CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL): 55.
Corzo-Martínez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M 2007. Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Sci Technol, 18: 609-625.
Cravotto G, Boffa L, Genzini L, Garella D. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther, 35: 11-48.
Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, Lackland DT, Lefevre ML, Mackenzie TD, Ogedegbe O, Smith Jr, SC, Svetkey LP, Taler SJ, Townsend RR. 2013. 2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint national committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 311:507-520.
Dinchev D, Janda B, Evstatieva L, Oleszek W, Aslani MR, Kostova I. 2008. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions. Phytochemistry, 69: 176-186.
Duda G, Suliburska J, Pupek-Musialik D. 2007. Effects of short-term garlic supplementation on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in hypertensive adults. Pharmacol Rep, 60: 163-170.
Elkayam A, Mirelman D, Peleg E, Wilchek M, Miron T, Rabinkov A, Sadetzki S, Rosenthal T. 2001. The effects of allicin and enalapril in fructose-induced hyperinsulinemic hyperlipidemic hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens, 14: 377-381.
Emtiazy M, Choopani R, Khodadoost M, Tansaz M, Dehghan S, Ghahremani Z. 2014. Avicenna’s doctrine about arterial hypertension. Acta Med Hist Adriat, 12: 157-162.
Evstatieva L, Tchorbanov B. 2011. Complex investigations of Tribulus terrestris L. for sustainable use by pharmaceutical industry. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip, 25: 2341-2347.
Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, Berti F, Rossoni G, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. 1999. Diet enriched with procyanidins enhances antioxidant activity and reduces myocardial post-ischaemic damage in rats. Life Sci, 64: 627-642.
Fan P, Lou H, Yu W, Ren D, Ma B, Ji M. 2004. Novel flavanol derivatives from grape seeds. Tetrahedron Lett, 45: 3163-3166.
Faridi P, Moatamedi M, Zarshenas MM, Abolhassanzadeh Z, Mohagheghzadeh A. 2015. Natural remedies in the Canon of Medicine for dentistry and oral biology. Trends Pharm Sci, 1: 4-9.
Fauconneau B, Waffo-Teguo P, Huguet F, Barrier L, Decendit A, Merillon JM. 1997. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests. Life Sci, 61: 2103-2110.
Ferreres F, Grosso C, Gil-Izquierdo A, Valentão P, Andrade PB. 2014. Assessing Jasminum grandiflorum L. authenticity by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and effects on physiological enzymes and oxidative species. J Pharm Biomed anal, 88: 157-161.
Fugh-Berman A. 2000. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet, 355: 134-138.
Ganzera M, Bedir E, Khan I. 2001. Determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection. J Pharm Sci, 90: 1752-1758.
Gharib Naseri MK, Heidari A. 2006. Bronchodilatory activity of Vitis vinifera leaf hydroalcoholic extract in rat. Iran Biomed J, 10: 79-83.
Gharib Naseri MK, Navid Hamidi M, Heidari A. 2010. Vasorelaxatory effect of Vitis vinifera extract on rat aorta. Iran J Pharm Res, 4: 93-99.
Godse S, Mohan M, Kasture V, Kasture S. 2010. Effect of myricetin on blood pressure and metabolic alterations in fructose hypertensive rats. Pharm biol, 48: 494-498.
Hashim S, Bakht T, Khan B, Jan J. 2014. Medicinal properties, phyto-chemistry and pharmacology of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae). Pak J Bot, 46: 399-404.
Hosseini M, Shafiee SM, Baluchnejadmojarad T. 2007. Garlic extract reduces serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in nondiabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Pathophysiology, 14: 109-112.
Hussain AA, Mohammed AA, Ibrahim HH, Abbas AH. 2009. Study the biological activities of tribulus terrestris extracts. World Acad Sci Eng Technol, 57: 433-435.
Ichiyanagi T, Hatano Y, Matsugo S, Konishi T. 2004. Structural dependence of HPLC separation pattern of anthocyanins from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Chem Pharm P Bull, 52: 628-630.
Inokuchi J, Okabe H, Yamauchi T, Nagamatsu A. 1984. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme in crude drugs. I. Chem pharm bull, 32: 3615-3619
Inoue M, Craker LE. 2014. Medicinal and aromatic plants—uses and functions. Horticulture: Plants for People and Places , 2: 645-669.
Ismail EH, Khalil MM, Al Seif FA, El-Magdoub F. 2014. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using extract of grape (vitis vinifera) leaves and seeds. Prog Nanotechnol Nanomater, 3: 1-12.
Jain S, Sangma T, Shukla SK, Mediratta PK. 2015. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Nutr Neur, 18: 210-216.
Jayaprakasha G, Rao LJM. 2011. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 51: 547-562.
Jorjani S, Zakhirehkharazmshahi. Treasure of Kharazmshahi), Saeedisirjani AA. 1976. Photo print of the manuscript dated 1206 A.D Tehran. The lranian Culture Foundation, 3.
Kardeh S, Choopani R, Mahmoudi NG, Zargaran A. 2014. The urinary catheter and its significant applications described by Avicenna (980-1037 AD) in the canon of medicine. Urology, 84: 993-996.
Kavitha A, Jagadeesan G. 2006. Role of Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) (Zygophyllacea) against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in mice, Mus musculus (Linn.). J Environ Biol, 37: 397-400.
Kesari A, Mahto PK, Kishan S, Singh S. 2014. Herbal anti hypertension drugs. Pharma Tutor, 2: 49-61.
Khan M, Matsui T, Matsumoto Y, Jabbar S. 2001. In vitro ACE inhibitory effects of some Bangladeshi plant extracts. Die Pharmazie, 56: 902-903.
Kiss AK, Mańk M, Melzig M. 2008. Dual inhibition of metallopeptidases ACE and NEP by extracts, and iridoids from Ligustrum vulgare L. J Ethnopharmacol, 120: 220-225.
Koo M, Kim S, Lee N, Yoo M, Ryu S, Kwon D, Kim Y. 2008. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitory effect of Vitis vinifera. Fitoterapia, 79: 204-206.
Kostova I, Dinchev D. 2005. Saponins in Tribulus terrestris–chemistry and bioactivity. Phytochem Rev, 4: 111-137.
Lee C, Han D, Kim B, Baek N, Baik BK. 2013. Antioxidant and anti‐hypertensive activity of anthocyanin‐rich extracts from hulless pigmented barley cultivars. Int J Food Sci Technol, 48: 984-991.
Loizzo MR, Saab AM, Tundis R, Menichini F, Bonesi M, Piccolo V, Statti GA, De Cindio B, Houghton PJ, Menichini F. 2008. In vitro inhibitory activities of plants used in Lebanon traditional medicine against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes related to diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol, 119: 109-116.
Mahdizadeh S, Ghadiri MK, Gorji A. 2015. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: a review of analgesics and anti-inflammatory substances. Avicenna J phytomed, 5: 182.
Malik J, Munjal K, Deshmukh R. 2015. Attenuating effect of standardized lyophilized Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark extract against streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer’s type. J Basic Clinic Physiol Pharmacol, 26: 275-285.
Martino-Andrade AJ, Morais RN, Spercoski KM, Rossi SC, Vechi MF, Golin M, Lombardi NF, Greca CS, Dalsenter PR. 2010. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 127: 165-170.
Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Araki Y, Hara H. 2009. Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Mol Nutr Food Res, 53: 869-877.
Mcmahon FG, Vargas R. 1993. Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy: Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev, 13: 406-407.
Mcrae MP. 2006. A review of studies of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure before and after 1994: does the amount of allicin released from garlic powder tablets play a role? J Chiropr Med, 4: 182-190.
Meunier MT, Villié F, Jonadet M, Bastide J, Bastide P. 1987. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by flavanolic compounds: in vitro and in vivo studies. Planta med, 53: 12-15
Moosavi J. 2009. The place of avicenna in the history of medicine. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol, 1: 3-8.
Nyadjeu P, Dongmo A, Nguelefack TB, Kamanyi A. 2011. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats. J Complement Integr Med, 8: 1553-3840.
Nyadjeu P, Nguelefack-Mbuyo EP, Atsamo AD, Nguelefack TB, Dongmo AB, Kamanyi A. 2013. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. BMC Complement Alternat Med, 13: 27.
Oboh G, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO. 2013. Inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from garlic on angiotensin-1 converting enzyme and cisplatin induced lipid peroxidation-in vitro. Int J Biomed Sci, 9: 98-106.
Öztürk Y, Aydin S, Koşar M, Başer KHC. 1994. Endothelium-dependent and independent effects of garlic on rat aorta. J Ethnopharmacol, 44: 109-116.
Patnaik N. 1993. The garden of life: an introduction to the healing plants of India, New York: Doubleday 195p. ISBN.
Patten GS, Abeywardena MY, Bennett LE. 2016. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II receptor blocking, and blood pressure lowering bioactivity across plant families. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 56: 181-214.
Persson IAL, Persson K, Andersson RG. 2009. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem, 57: 4626-4629.
Phillips OA, Mathew KT, Oriowo MA. 2006. Antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 104: 351-355.
Pourghassem-Gargari B, Abedini S, Babaei H, Aliasgarzadeh A, Pourabdollahi P. 2011. Effect of supplementation with grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extract on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patient with type diabetes. J Med Plant Res, 5: 2029-2034.
Puupponen-Pimiä R, Nohynek L, Ammann S, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Buchert J. 2008. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry. J Agric Food Chem, 56: 681-688.
Quiñones M, Guerrero L, Suarez M, Pons Z, Aleixandre A, Arola L, Muguerza B. 2013. Low-molecular procyanidin rich grape seed extract exerts antihypertensive effect in males spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res Int, 51: 587-595.
Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GS, Galappaththy P, Constantine GR, Katulanda P. 2013. Medicinal properties of ‘true’cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review. BMC Complement Alternat Med, 13: 275.
Ranjini H, Udupa PE, Kamath SU, Setty MM, Hadapad BS, Kamath A. 2016. An in vitro study of cinnamomum zeylanicum as natural inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) on sheep (ovis aries) tissues. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 9: 249-252.
Rastogi S, Pandey MM, Rawat A. 2016. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders. Phytomedicine. 15; 23: 1082-1089
Rathi B, Bodhankar S, Mohan V, Thakurdesai P. 2013. Ameliorative effects of a polyphenolic fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in animal models of inflammation and arthritis. Sci Pharm, 81: 567-89.
Ried K, Fakler P. 2014. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance. Integr Blood Press Control, 7: 71-82.
Ried K, Frank O, Stocks N. 2013. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose–response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr, 67: 64-70.
Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP. 2010. Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Maturitas, 67: 144-150.
Ried K, Travica N, Sali A. 2016. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the age at heart trial. Integr Blood Press Control, 9: 9-21.
Rosenkranz B, Fasinu P, Bouic P. 2012. An overview of the evidence and mechanisms of herb–drug interactions. Front Pharmacol, 30: 69.
Sadhu SK, Khan MS, Ohtsuki T, Ishibashi M. 2007. Secoiridoid components from Jasminum grandiflorum. Phytochemistry, 68: 1718-1721.
Saleem M, Bhatti HN, Jilani MI, Hanif MA. 2015. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil. Nat prodres, 29: 1857-1859.
Sandeep PP. 2009. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn (Chameli): ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology–a review. Pharma-cologyonline, 2: 586-595.
Sendl A, Elbl G, Steinke B, Redl K, Breu W, Wagner H. 1992. Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta med, 58: 1-7.
Shakeri A, Sahebkar A, Javadi B. 2016. Melissa officinalis L.–A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol, 188: 204-228.
Sharifi AM, Darabi R, Akbarloo N. 2003a. Investigation of antihypertensive mechanism of garlic in 2K1C hypertensive rat. J Ethnopharmacol, 86: 219-224.
Sharifi AM, Darabi R, Akbarloo N. 2003b. Study of antihypertensive mechanism of Tribulus terrestris in 2K1C hypertensive rats: role of tissue ACE activity. Life Sci, 73: 2963-2971.
Shouk R, Abdou A, Shetty K, Sarkar D, Eid AH. 2014. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives. Nutr Res, 34: 106-115.
Sobhani Z, Reza Nami S, Ahmad Emami S, Sahebkar A, Javadi B. 2017. Medicinal plants targeting cardiovascular diseases in view of Avicenna.Curr Pharm Des, 23: 2428-2443.
Somanadhan B, Smitt UW, George V, Pushpangadan P, Rajasekharan S, Duus JØ, Nyman U, Olsen CE, Jaroszewski JW. 1998. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Jasminum azoricum and Jasminum grandiflorum. Planta med, 64: 246-250.
Somanadhan B, Varughese G, Palpu P, Sreedharan R, Gudiksen L, Smitt UW, Nyman U. 1999. An ethnopharmacological survey for potential angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors from Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol, 65: 103-112.
Song J, Li Y, Ge J, Duan Y, Sze SCW, Tong Y, Shaw PC, Ng TB, Tsui KC, Zhuo Y. 2010. Protective effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extracts on cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells (HCLEC). Phytother Res, 24: 520-524.
Sultana S, Khan A, Alhazmi MMSHA. 2016. Cough suppressant herbal drugs: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Invent. 5:15-28.
Terral J.-F, Tabard E, Bouby L, Ivorra S, Pastor T, Figueiral I, Picq S, Chevance J.-B, Jung C, Fabre L. 2010. Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars. Ann Bot, 105: 443-455.
Tuncer MA, Yaymaci B, Sati L, Cayli S, Acar G, Altug T, Demir, R. 2009. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet. Acta histochem, 111: 488-500.
Ukani M, Nanavati D, Mehta N. 1997. A review on the ayurvedic herb tribulus terrestris L. Anc Sci Life, 17: 144.
Ulbricht C, Basch E, Basch S, Bent S, Boon, Burke D, Costa D, Falkson C, Giese N, Goble M. 2009. An evidence-based systematic review of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) by the natural standard research collaboration. J Diet Suppl, 6: 162-200.
Venkataiah G, Kumar CP, Rejeena D. 2013. Effect of methanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum linn leaves on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indo Am J Pharm Res, 3: 7462-7467.
Wiseman W, Egan JM, Slemmer JE, Shaughnessy KS, Ballem K, Gottschall-Pass KT, Sweeney MI. 2010. Feeding blueberry diets inhibits angiotensin II-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 89: 67-71.
Xiong X, Wang P, Li S, Li X, Zhang Y, Wang J. 2015. Garlic for hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine, 22: 352-361.
Yilancioglu K, Cetiner S. 2013. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods. Genome, 56: 295-302.
Yüce A, Türk G, Çeribaşı S, Güvenç M, Çiftçi M, Sönmez M, Özer Kaya Ş, Cay M, Aksakal, M. 2014. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride‐induced damages on the male reproductive system. Andrologia, 46: 263-272.
Zhou T, Zhang T, Liu W, Zhao G. 2011. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds protein. Int J Food Sci Technol, 46: 635-641.