Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Cassia fistula fruit in male rats

Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of PG Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jnanasahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.


Objective: The plantCassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is traditionally used to treat heart diseases, abdominal pain and fever. The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects acute and sub-acute administration of ethanol extract of C. fistula fruit (CFE) in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity, the effects of a single oral dose (1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg) of CFE have been determined. Animal behaviour and mortality were determined for up to 14 days. In sub-acute study, the effects of CFE in daily single oral administration at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg during 28 days were determined. The blood haematological and biochemical parameters, as well as the histopathological examination of the liver, heart and kidneys were studied.
Results: In acute study, a single administration of the CFE up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not induce mortality. Thus, the LD50 of the CFE has been estimated higher than 5000 mg/kg. In sub-acute toxicity study, administration of CFE at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg to rats did not induce mortality. No significant differences were found in relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical analyses in treated groups compared to control group. No noticeable histological changes were observed in organs of CFE-treated rats compared to controls. 
Conclusion: These results have shown that oral administration of C. fistula fruit did not produce any significant toxic effect in male rats. Hence, C. fistula fruit could be regarded as a safe natural product for therapeutic use. 


Main Subjects

Abid R, Mahmood R, Rajesh KP, Kumara Swamy BE. 2014. Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. Fruit extracts against induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 6: 497-505.
Abid R, Mahmood R, Santosh Kumar HS. 2016. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of Cassia fistula fruit in hyperlipidemic mice. Pharm Biol, 54: 1-8.
Al-Mamary M, Al-Habori M, Al-Aghbari AM, Baker MM. 2002. Investigation into the toxicological effects of Catha edulis leaves: a short term study in animals. Phyther Res, 16: 127-132.
Asare GA, Gyan B, Bugyei K, Adjei S, Mahama R, Addo P, Otu-Nyarko L, Wiredu EK, Nyarko A. 2012. Toxicity potentials of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera at supra-supplementation levels. J Ethnopharmacol, 139: 265-272.
Asare GA, Sittie A, Bugyei K, Gyan BA, Adjei S, Addo P, Wiredu EK, Nyarko AK, Otu-Nyarko LS, Adjei DN. 2011. Acute toxicity studies of Croton membranaceus root extract. J Ethnopharmacol, 134: 938-943.
Bahorun T, Neergheen V, Aruoma O. 2011. Phytochemical constituents of Cassia fistula. Afr J Biotechnol, 4: 1530-1540.
Birbrair A, Frenette PS. 2016. Niche heterogeneity in the bone marrow. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1370: 82-96.
Chauhan N, Bairwa R, Sharma K, Chauhan N. 2011. Review on Cassia fistula. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm, 2: 426-430.
Clarke EGC, Clarke CML. 1977. Veterinary toxicology. In: Cassel and Collier Macmillan Publishers, pp. 268-277, London.
Dekant W, Vamvakas S. 1996. Biotransformation and membrane transport in nephrotoxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol, 26: 309-334.
Dubey NK, Kumar R, Tripathi P. 2004. Global promotion of herbal medicine : India’s opportunity. Curr Sci, 86: 37-41.
Hodges RE, Minich DM. 2015. Modulation of metabolic detoxification pathways using foods and food-derived components: A scientific review with clinical application. J Nutr Metab, 2015: 1-23.
Huh H, Staba EJ. 1992. The Botany and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba L. J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 1: 91-124.
Jaouhari JT, Lazrek HB, Jana M. 1999. Acute toxicity of 10 Moroccan plants reported to be hypoglycemic agents. Therapie, 54: 701-706.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. 1975. Indian medicinal plants. In: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, pp. 877, Delhi, India.
Mayne PD. 1996. Clinical chemistry in diagnosis and treatment. In: Sixth Edition (International Students Edition), New York, Arnold London/Oxford University Press Inc.
Michalowicz J, Duda W. 2007. Phenols - sources and toxicity. Polish J Environ Stud, 16: 347-362.
Mukinda JT, Syce JA. 2007. Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol, 112: 138-144.
OECD. 2008. OECD 407 - Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents. Guidel Test Chem, 1-13.
OECD. 2001. OECD 423 - Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Acute oral toxicity -Fixed dose procedure. Animals, 1-14.
Rahmani AH, Aldebasi YH, Srikar S, Khan AA, Aly SM. 2015. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities. Pharmacogn Rev, 9: 120-126.
Rosidah, Yam MF, Sadikun A, Ahmad M, Akowuah GA, Asmawi MZ. 2009. Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens. J Ethnopharmacol, 123: 244-249.
Saad B, Azaizeh H, Abu-Hijleh G, Said O. 2006. Safety of traditional arab herbal medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 3: 433-439.
United Nations. 2011. Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS). In: Fourth revised edition, New York and Geneva.
Wiam IM, Jacks TW, Zongoma YA. 2005. Acute toxicity and phytochemical studies of Cassia siamea extract in rats. Pakistan J Biol Sci, 8: 586-588.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. WHO guidelines on safety monitoring of herbal medicines in pharmacovigilance systems. World Health Organization, Geneva.