1Department Of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
2International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University Of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Objective: Homalium letestui Pellegr (Flacourtiaceae) is used in traditional medicine in parts of Nigeria for the treatment of malaria, ulcer, and inflammatory diseases and as an aphrodisiac. This investigation was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and antileishmanial properties of stem extract and fractions of Homalium letestui (H. letestui). Materials and Methods: Cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells was done using sulphorhodamine (SRB) method and DNA interaction activity using gel electrophoresis. Immunomodulatory activity of the extract in whole blood, neutrophils, and macrophages was also investigated using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. The extract and fractions were similarly screened for antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major in vitro. The GCMS analysis of the most active fraction against HeLa cells was carried out. Results: The stem extract exerted prominent cytotoxic activity with the dichloromethane fraction exhibiting the most pronounced effect (GI50 -5.12±1.45 µg/ml, LC50- 57.3±2.33 µg/ml, TGI -12.6±0.87 µg/ml). The crude extract and the fractions did not interact with DNA when investigated using electrophoresis. The extract significantly ((pLeishmania major in vitro. GCMS analysis of active fraction revealed pharmacologically active compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest that the stem extract/fractions of H. letestuipossess cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, and antileishmanial activities.
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