1Department of Clinical & Administrative Sciences, Roosevelt University College of Pharmacy, 1400 N. Roosevelt Blvd., Schaumburg, IL, 60173, USA
2Department of Bipoharmaceutical Sciences, Roosevelt University College of Pharmacy, 1400 N. Roosevelt Blvd., Schaumburg, IL, 60173, USA
Objective: Little knowledge is available on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Coccina grandis fruits and no study has reported on its cell proliferative property. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative property of fruits of C. grandis. Material and Methods: Fruits of C. grandis were extracted using water; ethanol and acetone by cold and hot Soxhlet extraction. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and compared against erythromycin. The antioxidant property was determined using Cayman's antioxidant assay; whereas cell proliferation/cytotoxic properties were evaluated using the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell MTS assay with MDA-MB 321 breast cancer cells. Data were analyzed for correlation and differences using unpaired student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some degree of bacterial growth inhibition. Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. In contrary to cytotoxicity, all four extracts showed cell proliferation compared to controls at different concentrations. However, acetone extracts exhibited greater cell proliferation compared to ethanol extracts and cold extracts performed better than the hot extracts. Conclusion: C. grandis fruits exhibited some degree of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties. Further investigation is warranted to isolate, confirm and characterize phytochemicals that are responsible for the medicinal properties observed.
Abba DI, Inabo HI, Yakubu SE, Olonitola OS. 2009. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis. Sci World J, 4: 23-26.
Ali AM, Pandey AK. 2005- 2006. Systematic studies on the family cucurbitaceae of eastern Bihar, India, In: Cucurbit Genetics cooperative Report. pp. 28-29 and 66-69.
Ashwini M, Lather N, Bole S, Vedamurthy AB, Balu S. 2012. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Coccinia grandis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 4: 239- 242.
Bandopadhyay U, Das A, Bannerjee RK. 1999. Reactive oxygen species: oxygen damage and pathogenesis. Curr Sci, 77: 658-666.
Behera SK and Dash V. 2012. Some Indian vegetables used as an anticancer agent. Int J Adv Pharm Res Bio Sci, 2: 250-264.
Bhaduria P, Arora B, Vimal B, Kulshrestha A. 2012. In vitro antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extracts. Indo global J Pharm Sci, 2: 230-238.
Bhattacharya B, Samantha M, Pal P, Chakraborty S, Samanta A. 2010. In-vitro evaluation of antifungal and antibacterial activities of the plant Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. (Family: Cucurbitaceae). J Phytol, 2: 52-57.
Bhattacharya B, Pal P, Lalee A, Mal DK, Samanta A.2011. In vitro anticancer activity of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) on Swiss albino mice. J Pharm Res, 4: 567-569.
Bulbul IJ, Nathan L, Haque M. 2011. Antibacterial cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of chloroform, n-Haxane and ethyl acetate extract of plant Coccinia cordifolia. Agric Biol J N Am, 2: 713-719.
Bunkrongcheap R, Hutadilok-Towatana N, Noipha K, Wattanapiromsakul C, Inafuku M, Oku H.2014. Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Lipids Health Dis, 13: 88.
Cooke, C.I.E.T. 1903. Flora of Presidency of Bombay, Bombay, Authority of Secretary of State for Council.
Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108, U.S.A.
Deshpande SV, Patil MJ, Parmar KK, Daswadkar SC, Khodade RR. 2011a. A study of antioxidant activity of fruit extract of Coccinia grandis (L., Voigt). Int J Drug Res Tech, 1: 69-72.
Deshpande SV, Patil MJ, Daswadhkar SC, Suralkar U, Agarwal A. 2011b. A study on anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf and stem extracts of Coccinia grandis Voigt. Int J Appl Bio Pharm, 2: 247-250
Dnyaneshwar JT, Patil RY. 2011. Mast cell stabilizing, antianaphylectic and antihistaminic activity of Coccinia grandis fruits in Asthma. Chin J Nat Med, 9: 0359- 0362.
Egwaikhide PA, Gimba CE. 2007. Analysis of the phytochemical content and anti-microbial activity of Plectranthus glandulosis whole plant. Middle-East J Sci Res, 2: 135-138.
Fang Y, Yang S, Wu G. 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants and nutrition. Nutrition, 18: 872-879.
Farrukh U, Shareef H, Mahmud S, Ali SA, Rizwani GH. 2008. Antibacterial activities of Coccinia grandis (L.). Pak J Bot, 40: 1259-1262.
Gautam S, Meshram A, Srivastava N. 2014. A brief study on phytochemical compounds present in Coccinia cordifolia for their medicinal, pharmacological and industrial applications. World J Pharm Pharmaceutical Sci, 3: 1995- 2016.
Gill NS, Kaur P, Arora R. 2014. Review on Coccinia cordifolia auct. Non (L) Cogn. Int J Adv Pharmaceutical, 5: 234-241.
Girish C, Balakrishnan S, Koner BC, Jayanthi S, Rao KR, Rajesh B, Pradhan SC. 2011. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Coccinia grandis leaves. Res J Pharmacology & Pharmacodynamics, 3: 2011-2013.
Halliwell B. and Gutteridge JMC.1999. In: Free radicals in Biology and medicine, 3rd Ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford: pp. 23-27.
Hossain SA, Uddin SN, Salim MA, Haque R. 2014. Phytochemical screening of Coccinia grandis Linn. J Scient Innov Res, 3: 65-71.
Hussain A, Shadma W, Zarin I, Hussain SMD. 2010. Antibacterial activity of the leaves of Cocciniaindica (W. and A.). Advan Biol Res, 4: 241-248.
Junaid N, Singh P, Bansal Y, Goel RK. 2009. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica. Inflammopharmacology, 17: 219-244.
Khan AKA, Akhtar S, Mahtab H. 1979. Coccinia indica in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin, 5: 60-66.
Khatun S, Pervin F, Karim MR, Ashraduzzaman M, Rosma A. 2012. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Coccinia cordifolia L. plant. Pak J Pharm Sci, 25: 757-761.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. 1994. Indian Medicinal Plants, pp.1908–1909. Dehradun, International Book Distributors.
Lee J, Koo N, Micro DB. 2004. Reactive oxygen species, aging, and antioxidative nutraceuticals. CRFSFS, 3: 21-33.
Maheshwari C, Venkatnarayanan R, Manavalan R, Sivasakthi R, Johnson S, Subadradevi J. 2015. Phytochemical screening and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Orthosiphon stamineus and Coccinia grandis. Int Res J Pharm, 6: 627-630.
Moideen K, Sherief SH, Sengottuvelu S, Sivakumar T. 2011. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Int J of Res In: Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 2: 858-863.
Nagare S, Deokar GS, Nagare R, Phad N. 2015. Review on Coccinia grandis (L.) voigt (Ivy Gourd). World J Pharm Res, 4910: 728-743.
Nanasombat S and Teckchuen N. 2009. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiulcer activities of Thai local vegetables. J Med Plants Res, 3950: 443-449.
Niazi J, Singh P, Bansal Y, Goel RK. 2009. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica. Inflammopharmacology, 17: 219-244.
Njoku OV, Obi C. 2009. Phytochemical constituents of some selected medicinal plants. Afr J Pure App Chem, 3: 228-233.
Papiya MM, Sasmal D, Arivudi NH. 2008. Antiulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of Coccinia grandis (Linn) Voigt, leaves on Aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Nat Prod Radiance, 7: 15-18.
Ramakrishnan M, Bhuvaneshwari R, Duraipandiyan V, Dhandapani R. 2011. Hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia indica (Wight and Arn) fruits in Alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Ind J Nat Prod Resour, 2: 350-353.
Roopashree R, Dang S, Rani NC. 2008. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Mormodica charentia and Calendula officinalis. Int J App Res Nat Prod, 1: 20-28.
Satheesh LS and Murugan K. 2011.Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. Indian J Exp Biol, 49: 366-374.
Shaheen SZ, Bolla K, Vasu K, Singara Charya MA. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extract of Coccinia indica. Afr J Biotech, 8: 7073-7076.
Siddiqui S, Verma A, Rather AH, Jabeen F, Meghvansi MK. 2009. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of some important medicinal plants. Advan Biol Res, 3:188-195.
Sivraj A, Vinothkumar P, Sathiyaraj K. 2010. Hepatoprotactive and antioxidant properties of Coccinia grandis, aqueous leaf extract on ethanol induced liver toxicity in albino rats. J Pharm Res, 3: 533-538.
Sivaraj A, Preeth JB, Kavitha M, Inbasekar P, Senthilkumar B, Panneerselvan A. 2011. Antibacterial activity of Coccinia grandis leaf extract on selective bacterial strains. J Appl Pharm Sci, 1: 120-123.
Soloman Charles U, Arukwe Uche I, Onuoha I, Baker G. 2013. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of stem bark and roots of Dennetia tripetala. Asian J Plant Sci Res, 3: 10-13.
Sood A, Kaur P, Gupta R. 2012. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assay of various seeds extract of cucurbitaceae family. Int J App Bio Pharm Tech, 3: 401- 409.
Tamilselvan N, Thirumalai T, Elumalai EK, Balaji R, David E. 2011. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis - a review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 1: S299-S302.
Vadivu R, Krithika A, Biplab C, Dedegpya P, Shoeb N, Lakshmi KS. 2008. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Coccinia grandis (Linn.). Int J Health Res, 1: 163-168.
Yadav G, Mishra A, Tiwari A. 2010. Medical properties of Ivy Gourd (Cephalandra indica) – a review. Int J Pharm Res Dev, 2: 92-98.
Yadav RN, Agarwala M. 2011. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. J Phyt, 3: 10-14.