1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 58554, Republic of Korea
2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan 48434, Korea
Objective:Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Material and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (p<0.0001), and delayed the reaction time of mice to the hot plate-induced thermal stimulation (p<0.0001) and tail flick tests (p<0.05). OHS extract attenuated the carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema in rats (p<0.001). Similarly, OHS extract significantly decreased Evans blue concentration in acetic acid induced vascular permeability test (p<0.0001), revealing its strong anti-inflammatory effect. Finally, among four different fractions of OHS extract, n-butanol fraction strongly decreased NO production (p<0.0001) and iNOS expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the methanolic extract of O. humifusa stem can be used to develop a therapeutic or supportive drug and/or functional food against pain and inflammation related diseases.
Koehn FE, Carter GT. 2005. The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discovery,4: 206-220.
Kothari S, Kushwah A, Kothari D. 2013. Involvement of opioid and monoaminergic pain pathways in Aegle marvelos induced analgesia in mice. Indian J Pharmacol. 45: 371-375.
Park CM, Kwak BH, Park SH, Hui Kim, Rhyu DY. 2013. Comparison of biological activities of Opuntia humifusa and Opuntia ficus indica. Kor J Plant Res, 26: 519-525.
Park E, Kum E, Wang C, Park SY, Kim BS, Schuller-Levis G. 2005. Anti-inflammatory activity of herbal medicines: inhibition of nitric oxide production and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in an activated macrophage-like cell line. Am J Chin Med, 33: 415-424.
Park SH, Kim H, Rhyu DY. 2007. Flavonoids from the stems of eastern prickly pear Opuntia humifusa, Cactaceae. Appl Biol Chem, 50: 254-258.
Rates SM. 2001. Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon, 39: 603-613.
Ricciotti E, Fitzgerald GA. 2011. Prostaglandins and inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol,31: 986-1000.
Sharma BR, Kim HJ, Rhyu DY. 2015. Caulerpa lentillifea extract ameliorates insulin resistance and regulates glucose metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in myocytes. J Transl Med, 2015: 13:62.
Sharma BR, Park CS, Ma SJ, Rhyu DY. 2017. Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of Hizikia fusiformis via multicellular signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Pak J Pharm Sci, 30_ 043-048.
Sharma BR, Rhyu DY. 2015. Lespedeza davuica (Lax.) Schindl. extract protects against cytokine-induced beta cell damage and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. BioMed Res Int, 2015: 169256.
Sumaya-Martinez MT, Cruz-Jaime S, Madrigel-Santillan E, Garcia-Paredes JD, Carino-Cortes R, Cruz-Cansino N, Valadez-Vega C, Martinez-Cardenas L, Alanis-Garcia E. 2011. Betalin, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow, and while cactus pears. Int J Mol Sci. 12: 6452-6468.
Uceyler N, Schafers M, Sommer C. 2009. Mode of action of cytokines on nociceptive neurons. Exp Brain Res, 196: 67-68.
Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R. 1969. Biphasic development of carrageenan oedema in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 166: 96-103.
Vittalrao AM, Shanbhang T, Kumari M, Bairy KL, Shenoy S. 2011. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galangal in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 55: 13-24.
Witkin LB, Heubner CF, Galdi F, Okeefee E, Spitaletta P, Plummer AJ. 1961. Pharmacology of 2-amino-indane hydrochloride (Su-8629): a potent non-narcotic analgesic. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 133: 400-408.
Yeddes N, Cherif JK, Trabelsi Ayadi M. 2014. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids, and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms. Pak J Biol Sci, 17: 650-658.