Antitumor properties of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes (Kalijira and Chinigura)

Document Type: Original Research Article


Plant Biotechnology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh


Objective: Methanol extract of bran and unpolished grain of two traditional aromatic rice genotypes viz. Kalijira and Chinigura were assayed for their activity on the growth and initiation of crown-gall tumors on potato disks.
Materials and Methods: Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain AtSl0105, AtTa0112, and AtAc0114 were used as the tumor forming agent. Collected rice was separated to bran and unpolished grain by different milling processes and made into fine powder before extracting using methanol. Antitumor assay of plant extracts was performed according to standard potato disc bioassay. Disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer Method) was used to screen A. tumefaciens sensitivity test.
Results: The results demonstrated a high correlation between the ability of aromatic rice to inhibit the initiation and growth of crown-gall tumors on potato disks. Maximum tumor inhibitions were observed against the strain AtSl0105 by Kalijira bran (73.91%) and Chinigura bran (69.56%). Both unpolished grains showed significant effect (Kalijira 57.43%, Chinigura 55.53%) to inhibit the tumor.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that aromatic rice (Kalijira and Chinigura) might be a potential source of antitumor agent that can be used for further drug development for tumor treatment.


Ahmad I and Beg Z. 2001. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Ethnopharm, 74: 87-91.

Akueshi CO,  Kadiri CO, Akueshi EU, Agina SE, Ngurukwem B. 2002. Antimicrobial potentials of Hyptis sauvedens Poit (Lamiaccae). Nigeria J Bot, 15: 37-41.

Anderson WK, Heider AR, Raju N, Yucht JA. 1988. Vinylogous carbinolamine tumor inhibitors. 23. Synthesis and antileukemic activity of bis[[(carbamoyl)oxy]methyl]-substituted pyrrolo[2,1 a]isoquinolines, pyrrolo[1,2- a]quinolines, pyrrolo[2,1-a] isobenzazepines, and pyrrolo[1,2-a] benzazepines. J Med Chem, 31: 2097-2102.

Aoe S, Oda T, Tojima T, Tanaka M, Tatsumi K, Mizutani T. 1993. Effects of rice bran hemicellulose on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in Fischer 344 rats. Nutr Cancer, 20: 41-49.

Barry AL. 1980. Procedure for testing antimicrobial agent in agar media. In: Lorian V (ed) Antibiotica in laboratory medicines, Willims & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, USA.

Botting KJ, Young MM, Pearson AE, Harris PJ, Ferguson LR. 1999. Antimutagens in food plants eaten by Polynesians: micronutrients, phytochemi-cals and protection against bacterial mutagenicity of the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoline. Food Chem Toxicol, 37: 95-103.

Cascales E, Christie PJ. 2003. The versatile bacterial type IV secretion systems. Nat Rev Microbiol, 1: 137-150.

Chung IM, Ali M. Ahmad A, Lim JD, Yu CY, Kim JS. 2006. Chemical constituents of rice (Oryza sativa L.) hulls and their herbicidal activity against duckweed (Lemna paucicostata Hegelm 381). Phytochem Anal, 17: 36-45.

Duthie GG, Duthie SJ, Kyle JAM. 2000. Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev, 13: 79-106.

Ekwenye UN and Elegalam NN .2005. Antibacterial activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Int J Mol Adv Sci, 1: 411-416.

Fang N, Qinglin L, Zhang J, Shanggong Y, Ling H, Martin J, Ronis, Badger TM. 2004. In vitro antitumor activities of methanol extracts from rice protein isolate. Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Volume 45.

Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Anderson B, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, Moore DS, McLaughlin JL. 1982. Modification and evaluation of the potato disc assay and antitumor screening of Euphorbiaceae seeds. J Nat Prod, 45: 679-686.

Furihata C, Ishida S, Ohta H, Tokuyama T, Katsuyama T, Ogita Z. 1996. Cytotoxicity of NaCl, a stomach tumor promoter, and prevention by rice extract in stomach mucosa of F344 rats. Cancer Detect Prev, 20: 193-198.

Galsky AB, Kozimor R, Piotrowski D, Powell RG. 1981. The crown-gall potato disc bioassay as a preliminary screen for compounds with antitumor activity. J Natl Cancer Inst, 67: 689-692.

Galsky AB, Wilsey JP, Powell RG. 1980. Crown-gall tumor disc bioassay: a possible aid in the detection of compounds with antitumor activity. Plant Phys, 65: 184-185.

Harbone JB. 1973. Phytochemical methods, pp. 49-188, London. Chapman and Hall, ltd.

Hatate H, Nagata Y, Kochi M. 1990. Antioxidant effect of bovine serum albumin hydrolyzates and their synergistics effect with antioxidants. Yukagaku, 39: 42-46.

Hayshi Y, Nishikawa Y, Mori H, Tamura H, Matsushita Y, Matsui T. 1998. Antitumor activity of (10E, 12Z)-9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid from rice bran. J Ferm Bioeng, 86: 149-153.

Holliday P. 1989. A Dictionary of Plant Pathology. 330.

Hudson EA, Dinh PA, Kokubun T, Simmonds MSJ, Gescher A. 2000. Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidem Biomar, 9: 1163-1170.

Hussain A, Zia M, Mirza B. 2007. Cytotoxic and antitumor potential of Fagonia cretica L. Turk J Biol, 31: 19-24.

Ishizone S, Maruta F, Suzuki K, Miyagawa S, Takeuchi M, Kanaya K, Oana K, Hayama M, Kawakami Y, Ota H. 2007. In vivo bactericidal activities of Japanese rice-fluid against H. pylori in a Mongolian gerbil model. Int J Med Sci, 4: 203-208.

Islam MS, Akhtar MM, Rahman MM, Rahman MA, Sarker KK, Alam MF. 2009. Antitumor and Phytotoxic Activities of Leaf Methanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb. Global J Pharmacol, 3: 99-106.

Kannan A, Hettiarachchy NS, Lay JO, Liyanage R. 2010. Human cancer cell proliferation inhibition by a pentapeptide isolated and characterized from rice bran. Peptides, 31: 1629-1634.

Kawakami Y, Oana K, Hayama M, Ota H, Takeuchi M, Miyashita K, Matsuzawa T,  Kanaya K. 2006. In vitro bactericidal activities of Japanese rice-fluid against Helicobacter pylori strains. Int J Med Sci, 3: 112-116.

Kempf VAJ, Hitziger N, Riess,T,  Autenrieth IB. 2002. Do plant and human pathogens have a common pathogenicity strategy? Trends Microbiol, 10: 269- 275.

Koide T, Kamei H, Hashimoto Y, Kojima T, Hasegawa M. 1996. Anti-tumor effect of hydrolyzed anthocyanin from grape rinds and red rice. Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 11: 273-277.

Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouuillard R. 2003. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry, 64: 923-933.

Laokuldilok T, Charles F, Shoemaker, Jongkaewwattana S, Tulyathan V. 2011. Antioxidants and Antioxidant Activity of Several Pigmented Rice Brans. J Agric Food Chem, 59: 193-199.

Lewis NG. 1993. Plant phenolics. In: Alscher RG, Hess JL (eds) Antioxidants in higher plants. , pp. 135-160, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.

McLaughlin JL and Rogers LL. 1998. The use of biological assays to evaluate botanicals. Drug Inform J, 32: 513-524.

McLaughlin JL. 1991. Crown gall tumors on potato discs and bine shrimp lethality: Two single bioassays for plant screening and fractionation. In Hostettmann K (ed) Methods in Plant Biochemistry, 6: 1-31.Academic Press, London.

Muraguchi T, Okamoto K, Mitake M, Ogawa H, ShidojiY. 2011. Polished rice as natural sources of cancer-preventing geranylgeranoic acid. J. Clin Biochem Nutr, 49: 8-15.

Nam SH, Choi SP, Kang MY, Kozukue N, Friedman M. 2005. Antioxidative, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic activities of rice bran extracts in chemical and cell assays. J Agric Food Chem, 53: 816-822.

Qureshi A, Mo H, Packer L, Peterson D. 2000. Isolation and identification of novel tocotrienols from rice bran with hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. J Agric Food Chem, 48: 3130-3140

Raderer M, Wrba F, Kornek G, Maca T, Koller DY, Weinlaender G, Hejna M, Scheithauer W. 1998. Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and pancreatic cancer. Oncology, 55: 16-19.

Romero MV, Panajon NM,  Manaoes RV, Mamucod HF. 2009. Health-promoting antioxidants from pigmented rice. Phil J Crop Sci, 34: 110.

Saikia D and Deka SC. 2011. Staple food to neutraceuticals. Int J Food 18: 21-30.

Sanderson BJ, Ferguson LR, Denny WA. 1996. Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of platinum based anticancer drugs. Mutata, 355: 59-70.

Santin AD, Hermonat PL, Raviggi A, Bellone S, Roman J. 2000. Effects of concurrent cis-platinum administration during radiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone on the immune function if patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. Int J Radita Oncol Biol Phys, 48: 997-1006.

Sarker MAQ, Mondol PC, Alam MJ, Parvez MS, Alam MF. 2011. Comparative study on antitumor activity of three pteridophytes ethanol extracts. J Agri Tech, 7: 1661-1671.

Takashima A, Ohtomo M, Kikuchi K, Iwashita J, Abe T, Hata K. 2011. Differentiation and apoptosis inducing activities of rice bran extracts in a human colon cancer cell line. J Food Sci Technol, 50: 595 - 599.

Takeshita M, Nakamura S, Makita F, Ohwada S, Miyamoto Y, Morishita Y. 1992. Anti-tumor effects of RBS (Rice Bran Saccharide) on ENNG-induced carcinogenesis. Biotherapy, 4: 139-145.

Verschoyle RD, Greaves P, Cai H, Edwards RE, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. 2007. Evaluation of the cancer chemopreventive efficacy of rice bran in genetic mouse models of breast, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer, 96: 248-254.

WCRF and AICR. 1997. World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (eds.). Patterns of Diet and Cancer. In: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, pp. 20-52.

Wenzig E, Kunert O, Ferreira D, Schmid M, Schuhly W, Bauer R. 2005. Flavonolignans from Avena sativa. J Nat Prod, 68: 289-292.

Witte JS, Longnecker P, Bird CL, Lee ER, Franki HD, Haile RW. 1996. Relation of vegetables, fruit and grain consumption to colorectal adenomatous polyps. Am J Epidemiol, 144: 1015-1024.

Yasukawa K, Akihisa T, Kimura Y, Tamura T, Takido M. 1998. Inhibitory effect of cycloartenol ferulate, a component of rice bran, on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Biol Pharm Bull, 21: 1072-1076.

Zhu J, Oger PM, Schrammeijer B, Hooykaas PJJ, Farrand SK,  Winans SC. 2000. The bases of crown gall tumorigenesis. J Bacteriol, 182: 3885-3895.

Zupan J, Muth TR, Draper O, Zambryski P. 2000. The transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plants: a feast of fundamental insights. Plant J, 23: 11-28.