Vidya Pratishthan’s School of Biotechnology (VSBT, Research centre affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University) Baramati, Maharashtra, India
Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg) as an antigen.
Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl) was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl) as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC.
Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml). In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC.
Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.
Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, Funovits J, Felson DT, Bingham CO, Birnbaum NS, Burmester GR, Bykerk VP, Cohen MD, Combe B, Costenbader KH, Dougados M, Emery P, Ferraccioli G, Hazes JMW, Hobbs K, Huizinga TWJ, Kavanaugh A, Kay J, Kvien TK, Laing T, Mease P, Menard HA, Moreland LW, Naden RL, Pincus T, Smolen JS, Biernat ES, Symmons D, Tak PP, Upchurch KS, Vencovsky J, Wolfe F, Hawker G. 2010. Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum, 62: 2569 - 2581.
Dai SM. 2011. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall., a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Front Pharmacol, 2:1– 5.
Davis L, Kuttan G. 2007.Immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol, 71: 193 – 200.
Gupta A, Chaphalkar SR. 2015. Impact of Rickettsia disease on immune system. Int J Cur trends Pharmac Res, 3: 758 – 762.
Gupta A and Chaphalkar SR. 2015.Immunosuppressive activity of crude saponins from the leaves of Caloptropis gigantean, Calamusrotang and Artocarpus integrifolia. Int J Phar Sci Res, 5:1-5.
Gupta Amit, Khajuria A, Singh J, Suri KA. 2015. Adjuvant effect of biopolymeric fraction from Picrorhizakurroa to promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. J Prog res Bio, 1 : 7 – 16.
Gupta A, Khamkar PR and Chaphalkar SR. 2014.Inhibition of nitric oxide production and proinflammatory cytokines by aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int J pharmac biol sci arch, 2: 29-33.
Gupta A, Khamkar PR, Chaphalkar SR. 2014. Applications and uses of active ingredients from medicinal plants. Ind J Nov Drug Deli 6: 106 – 111.
Haziot A, Rong GW, Lin XY, Silver J, Goyert SM. 1995. Recombinant soluble CD14 prevents mortality in mice treated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). J Immunol. 154: 6529 –6532.
He DY and Barrett B, Kiefer D, Rabago D. 1999.Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: an overview of scientific evidence. Alt Ther, 5 : 40 – 48.
Khajuria A, Gupta A, Singh S, Suden P, Singh J, Gupta BD, Suri KA, Suden P, Srinivas VK, Ella K, Qazi GN. 2007. Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction BOS 2000 from Boswellia serrata. Phytother res, 22: 340 – 348.
Lacolley P, Challande P, Osborne-Pellegrin M, Regnault V 2009. Genetics and pathophysiology of arterial stiffness.Cardiovasc Res, 81: 637 – 648.
Mihich E, Ehrke MJ. 2000. Anticancer drugs plus cytokines: Immunomodulation based therapies of mouse tumors. Int J Immunopharmacol, 22:1077.
Moe SM, Chen NX. 2004. Pathophysiology of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Circ Res, 95: 560–567.
Ripa FA, Dash PR, Faruk O. 2015. CNS depressant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic seed extract of Calamus rotang Linn. fruits in rat. J Pharmacog Phytochem, 3: 121-125.
Soladoye OM, Chukwuma CE. 2012. Phytochemical analysis of the stem and root of Cissuspopulnea (Vitaceae) – an important medicinal plant in Central Nigeria. PhytoloBal, 18: 149 – 153.
Sujith K, Ronald C, Darwin, Roosewelt C. 2011. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Butea frondosa leaves with its possible mechanism of action. Asian J of Pharmac Clinic Res, 4: 93-98.
Wright SD, Ramos RA, Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ, Mathison JC. 1990. CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Sci, 249: 1431– 1433.
Ziegler-Heitbrock HW. 1995. Molecular mechanism in tolerance to lipopolysaccharide. J Inflamm, 45: 13–26.