Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Objective: Scientificstudies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety.
Alan JG. 2000. Psychiatric and Somatic Markers of Anxiety: Identification and Pharmacologic Treatment. Prim Care Comp J Clin Psychiatry, 2: 49–54.
Amella AL, Bronner C, Briancon F, Haag M, Anton R, Landry Y. 1985. Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Med, 51:16–21.
Ballinger BR. 1990. New drugs. Hypnotics and anxiolytics. Br Med J, 300: 456–58.
Beaubrun G, Gray GE. 2000. A review of herbal medicines for psychiatric disorders. Psychiatr Serv, 51: 1130-4.
Belzung C, Misslin R, Vogel E, Dodd RH. 1987. Chapounthier G.Anxiogenic effects of methyl-carboline-carboxylate in a light-dark choice situation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 28: 29-33.
Biren NS, Avinash SK. 2010. Pharmacognostic studies of the Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley. Int J PharmTech Res, 2: 121-24.
Bowers J, Boursiquot JM, This P, Chu K, Johansson H, Meredith C. 1999. Historical genetics: the parentage of Chardonnay, Gamay, and other wine grapes of northeastern France. Science, 285:1562–65.
Christopher H. 2002. Principles and Practice of Medicine, Churchill Livingstone, London, UK, 19th edition.
Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE. 1993. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet, 341:454–57.
Frankel WN, Waterhouse AL, Teissedre PL. 1995. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem, 43:890–94.
Goutman JD, Waxemberg MD, Donate-Oliver F, Pomata PE, Calvo DJ. 2003. Flavonoid modulation of ionic currents mediated by GABAA and GABAC receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, 461: 79-87.
Hansen C. 1995. Grape seed extract: procyanidolic oligmers (PCO) New York: Healing Wisdom.
Iyer M, Belapurkar H, Sherikar O, Kasture SB. 2004. Anxiolytic activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. J Nat Remed, 4: 61–65.
Jordan AD, Kordik CP, Reitz AB, Sanfillipo PJ. 1996. Novel anxiolytic agents- 1994 to present. Expert Opinion Thera Pat, 6: 1047-60.
Kashif A, Federica M, Young HC, Robert V. 2010 Metabolic constituents of grapevine and grape-derived products. Phytochem Rev, 9:357–78.
Lader M, Morton S. 1991. Benzodiazepine problems. Br J Addic, 86: 823-828.
Liviero L, Puglisi PP. 1994. Antimutagenic activity of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera. Fitoterapia, 63:203–09.
Lodhi MA, Reisch BI. 1995. In situ hybridization in Vitis vinifera L. Theor Appl Genet, 90:11–16.
M. Holm. 1988. Prescription of benzodiazepines in general practice in the county of Arhus, Denmark. Dan Med Bull, 35: 495-9.
Muhammad A, Rahila N. 2013. Anxiolytic and memory enhancing activity of Lagenaria Siceraria in rodents. Int J Biomed Adv Res, 4: 40-46.
Muhammad A, Syed ZH. 2013. The Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Blood Cells and Liver Enzymes in New Zealand White Rabbits. Inventi Impact: Ethnopharmacol, 3: 1-4.
Paladini AC, Marder M, Viola H, Wolfman C, Wasowski C, Medina JH. 1999. Flavonoids and the central nervous system: from forgotten factors to potent anxiolytic compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol, 51: 519-26.
Prut L, Seo JJ, Lee SH, Lee YS, Kwon BM, Ma Y, Hwang BY et al. 2007. Anxiolytic-like effects of obovatol isolated from Magnolia obovata. involvement of GABA/benzodiazepine receptors complex. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 31: 1363–1369.
Belzung C. 2003. The open field as a paradigm to measure the effects of drugs on anxiety-like behaviours: a review. Eur J Pharmacol, 463: 3-33.
Saito M, Hosoyama H, Ariga T, Kataoka S, Yamaji N. 1998. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem, 46:1460–64.
Sethi A, Das BP, Bajaj BK. The anxiolytic activity of gabapentin in mice. 2005. J App Res, 5: 415-22.
Silva RC, Darmon N, Fernandez Y, Mitjavila S. 1991. Oxygen free radical scavenger capacity in aqueous models of different procyanidins from grape seeds. J Agric Food Chem, 39:1549–52.
Sonovane GS, Sarveiya VP, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. 2002. Anxiogenic activity of Myristica fragrans seeds. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 71: 239-44.
Tyagi A, Agarwal R, Agarwal C. 2003. Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosis. Oncogene, 22:1302–16.
Yadav AV, Kawale LA, Nade VS. 2008. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice. Indian J. Pharmacol, 40: 32-36.