1Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, I. R. Iran
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Arsanjan, Arsanjan, I. R. Iran
Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia) is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK) has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily), gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy), and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation). Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings.
Asadi-Shekaari M, Kalantaripour TP, Arab Nejad F, Namazian E, Eslami A. 2012. The anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of walnuts on the neurons of rat brain cortex. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol, 4: 155-158.
Chen K, Zhang X, Wei XP, Qu P, Liu YX, Li TY. 2009. Antioxidant vitamin status during pregnancy in relation to cognitive development in the first two years of life. Early Hum Develop, 85: 421-427.
Herrera E. 2002. Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal developmentda review. Placenta, 23: 9S-19.
Hooijmans CR, Van der Zee CE, Dederen PJ, Brouwer KM, Reijmer YD, van Groen T, Broersen LM, Lutjohann, D, Heerschap A, Kiliaan AJ. 2009. DHA and cholesterol containing diets influence Alzheimer-like pathology, cognition and cerebral vasculature in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Neurobiol Dis, 33: 482-498.
Innis SM. 2007. Fatty acids and early human development. Early Hum Dev, 83:761-766.
Kesse-Guyot E, Fezeu L, Jeandel C, Ferry M, Andreeva V, Amieva H, Hercberg S, Galan P. 2011. French adults’ cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: A post hoc analysis of the Supplementation inVitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 94: 892-899.
Li L, Tsao R, Yang R, Kramer JKG, Hernandez M. 2007. Fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of hearnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.). J Agric Food Chem, 55: 1164-1169.
Morris RG. 1984. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods, 11:47-60.
Polidori MC, Pratico D, Mangialasche F, Mariani E, Aust O, Anlasik T, Mang N, Pientka L, Stahl W, Sies H, Mococci P, Nelles G. 2009. High fruit intake is positively correlated with antioxidant status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. J Alzheimers Dis, 17: 921-927.
Poulose SM, Bielinski DF, Shukitt-Hale B. 2013. Walnut diet reduces accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and inflammation in the brain of aged rats. J Nutr Biochem, 24: 912-919.
Raghavendra V, Kulkarni SK. 2001. Possible antioxidant mechanism in melatonin reversal of aging and chronic ethanol-induced amnesia in plus-maze and passive avoidance memory tasks. Free Radical Bio Med, 30: 595-602.
Santos de Souza A, Santos Rocha M, das Grac M, do Carmo T. 2012. Effects of a normolipidic diet containing trans fatty acids during perinatal period on the growth, hippocampus fatty acid profile, and memory of young rats according to sex. Nutrition, 28: 458-464.
Thomas MA, Rice HB, Weinstock D, Corwin LC. 2002. Effects of againg on food intake and body composition in rats. Physiol Beh, 4-5: 487-500.
Tuzcu, M, Baydas G. 2006. Effect of melatonin and vitamin E on diabetes-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 537: 106-110.
Umezawa M, Ohta A, Tojo H, Yagi H, Hosokawa M, Takeda T. 1995. Dietary alpha-linolcnate/linoleate balance influence- learning and memory in the scnescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). Brain Res, 669: 225-233.
Wang XY, Zhang ZH, Li YQ, Zhao HR, Zhao YP1. 2004. Analysis of fatty acids composition and content in walnut varieties. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica, 26: 499-501.
Willis LM, Shukitt-Hale B, Cheng V, Joseph JA. 2009. Dose-dependent effects of walnuts on motor and cognitive function in aged rats. British J Nutr, 101: 1140-1144.7
Wu A, Yeng Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. 2004. The interplay between oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the outcome of a saturated fat diet on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Eur J Neurosci, 19: 1699-1707.
Yehuda S, Carasso RL. 1993. Modulation of learning, pain thresholds, and thermoregulation in the rat by preparations of free purified r-linolenic and linoleic acids: Determination of optimal n-3 to omega–6 ratio. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90: 10345-10349.
Zhang Z, Liao L, Moore J, Wua T, Wang Z. 2009. Antioxidant phenolic compounds from walnut kernels (Juglans regia L.). Food Chem, 113: 160-165.