1Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricariachamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P<0.05). The main finding was that the susceptibilities of FLU-resistant C. albicans to essential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti- FLU-resistant C. albicans agents.
Abbaszadeh S, Sharifzadeh A, Shokri H, Khosravi AR, Abbaszadeh A. 2014. Antifungal efficacy of thymol, carvacrol, eugenol and menthol as alternative agents to control the growth of food-relevant fungi. J MycolMéd, 24: e51-e56.
Abdurahman HN, Ranitha M, Azhari HN. 2013. Extraction and characterization of essential oil from Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Int J Chem Environ Engin, 4: 221-226.
Adams RP. 2004. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Carol Stream, IL: Allured Publishing Corporation.
Ahmad A, Khan A, Akhtar F, Yousuf S, Xess I, Khan LA. 2011. Fungicidal activity of thymol and carvacrol by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane integrity against Candida. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 30: 41-50.
Ali NA, Julich WD, Kusnick C, Lindequist U. 2001. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. J Ethnopharmacol, 74: 173-179.
Ayoughi F, Barzegar M, Sahari MA, Naghdibadi H. 2011. Chemical compositions of essential oils of Artemisia dracunculus L. and endemic Matricaria chamomilla L. and an evaluation of their antioxidative effects. J Agr Sci Tech, 13: 79-88.
Bakkali F, Averbeck S. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils. Food Chem Toxicol, 46: 446-475.
Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. 2002. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts. Approved Standard M27-A2, Wayne PA.
Council of Europe. 1997. Methods of Pharmacognosy. In: European Pharmacopoeia. 3rd edition. Strasbourg: European Department for the Quality of Medicines, p. 121-122.
Duarte MCT, Figueira GM. 2008. Anti-Candida activity of essential oils and extracts from native and exotic medicinal plants used in Brazil. In: Rai MK, Carpinella C, editors. Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds: A Newer and Safer Alternative for Control of Pest and Diseases. The Haworth Press Inc.
Feldmesser M. 2003. New and emerging antifungal agents: impact on respiratory infections. Am J Respir Med, 2: 371-383.
Fidel PL. 2006. Candida-host interactions in HIV disease: Relationships in oropharyngeal candidiasis. Adv Dent Res, 19: 80-84.
Hamza OJM, Mate M, Kikwilu E, Moshi E, Mugust J, Mikke F, Verius M, Vander A. 2008. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Biomed Central Oral Health, 6: 12.
Jafari S, Amanlou M, Borhan-Mohabi K, Farsam H. 2003. Comparative study of Zataria multiflora and Anthemis nobelis extracts with Myrthus communis preparation in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Daru, 11: 1-5.
Khosravi AR, Eslami A, Shokri H, Kashanian M. 2008. Zataria multiflora cream for the treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 101: 201-202.
Khan AP, Malik A, Khan SH. 2012. Profile of candidiasis in HIV infected patients. Iran J Microbiol, 4: 204-209.
Koletar SL. 1990. Comparision of oral fluoconazole in clotrimazole troches as treatment for oral candidiasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob agents chemother, 34: 2276-2278.
Martino LD, Feo VD, Formisano C, Mignola E, Senatore F. 2009. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from three chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart growing wild in Campania (Southern Italy). Molecul, 14: 2735-2746.
Motsei ML, Lindsey KL, Staden J, Jager AK. 2003. Screening of traditionally used South African plants for antifungal activity against Candida albicans. J Ethnopharmacol, 86: 255-241.
Nabavizadeh M, Abbaszadegan A, Gholami A, Sheikhiani R, Shokouhi M, Shams MS, Ghasemi Y. 2014. Chemical constituent and antimicrobial effect of essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves on microorganisms involved in persistent endodontic infection compared to two common endodontic irrigants: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent, 17: 449-453.
Pappas PG, Rex JH, Lee J. 2003. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis, 37: 634-643.
Pérez RA, Navarro T, de Lorenzo C. HS-SPME analysis of the volatile compounds from spices as a source of flavour in ‘Campo Real’ table olive preparations. Flavour Frag J, 22: 265-273.
Pozzatti P, Scheid LA, Spader TB, Atayde ML, Santurio JM, Alves SH. 2008. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol, 54: 950-956.
Salehi Surmaghi H. 2006. Medicinal plants and phytotherapy. Tehran: Donyaee Taghazie, p. 55-58.
Shokri H, Sharifzadeh A, Ashrafi Tamai I. 2012. Anti-Candida zeylanoides activity of some Iranian plants used in traditional medicine. J Mycol Méd, 22: 211-216.
Sultan M, Bhatti HN, Iqbal Z. 2005. Chemical analysis of essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale). Pakistan J Biol Sci, 8: 1576-1578.
Vazquez RS, Dunford NT. 2005. Bioactive components of Mexican oregano oil as affected by moisture and plant maturity. J Essent Oil Res 17: 668-671.
Wabe NT, Hussein J, Suleman S, Abdella K. 2011. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia. J Exp Integ Med, 1: 265-271.
William JD, Timothy BG. 2006. Andrews' diseases of the skin: Clinical dermatology. Saunders Elsevier, p. 45.