Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Chichorium intybus L. on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

2 Physiology Research Center, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Statistic, Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Objective: Several studies have shown that Chichorium intybus L. (C. intybus) which possesses flavonoid compounds has an effective role in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Contractile dysfunction mostly occurs after acute myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and coronary angioplasty.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. intybus on ischemia- reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.
Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into four groups (Sham, Control, 1 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of extract) of 8 rats. The aorta was cannulated, and then the heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. Next, a balloon was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) and peak positive value of time derivate of LV pressure (+dp/dt), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) in pre-ischemia and reperfusion period were calculated by a Power Lab system. All groups underwent a 30-minute global ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion.
Results: The results showed that heart rate (HR), coronary flow, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate of pressure product (RPP) significantly decreased in the control group during reperfusion, while these values in the groups receiving the extract (3mg/ml) improved significantly during reperfusion (p<0.001).
Conclusion: It seems that flavonoid compounds of aqueous extract of C. intybus reduce ischemia - reperfusion injuries, suggesting its protective effect on heart function after ischemia.


Main Subjects

Akhlaghi M and Bandy B. 2009. Mechanisms of flavonoid protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol, 46: 309-317.

Argolo  AC, Sant'Ana  AE, Pletsch M, Coelho LC. 2004. ntioxidant activity of leaf extracts from Bauhinia monandra. Bioresour Technol, 95: 229-233.

Banach M, Okoński P, Kośmider A, Irzmański R, Rysz J, Olszewski R, Zwoliński R, Zaslonka J. 2006. Aortic valve replacement in patients with heart failure. Pol merkur lekarski, 20: 642-645.

Bolli R. 1992. Myocardial 'stunning' in man. Circulation 86: 1671-1691.

Buja LM and Weerasinghe P. 2010. Unresolved issues in myocardial reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Pathol, 19: 29-35.

Cologna AJ, Lima LV, Tucci, JR, Suaid HJ, Reis RB, Tirapelli LF, Rodrigues AA Jr, Martins AC. 2008. Cyclosporine action on kidneys of rats submitted to normothermic ischaemia and reperfusion. Acta Cir Bras, 23: 36-41.

Das DK, Sato M, Ray PS, Maulik G, Engelman RM, Bertelli AA, Bertelli A 1999. Cardioprotection of red wine: role of polyphenolic antioxidants. Drugs Exp Clin Res, 25: 115-120.

Ghaderi R, Hasanpour M, Sadat Jou A. 2004. Comparison of anti-microbial effect of Cichorium Intybus L. with Gentamicin and Cephalexin. JBUMS, 1: 40-45.

Hausenloy DJ, Mwamure PK, Venugopal V, Harris J, Barnard M, Grundy E, Ashley E, Vichare S, Di Salvo C, Kolvekar S, Hayward M, Keogh B, MacAllister RJ, Yellon DM. 2007. Effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 370: 575-579.

Hughes R and Rowland IR. 2001. Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 22: 43-47.

Janbaz KH, Saeed SA, Gilani AH. 2002. Protective effect of rutin on paracetamol- and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia, 73: 557-563.

Juskiewicz J, Asmanskaite L, Zduńczyk Z, Matusevicius P, Wróblewska M, Zilinskiene A. 2008. Metabolic response of the gastrointestinal tract and serum parameters of rabbits to diets containing chicory flour rich in inulin. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 92: 113-120.

Juskiewicz J, Głazka I, Król B, Zduńczyk Z. 2006. Effect of chicory products with different inulin content on rat caecum physiology. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 90: 200-207.

Khaksari M, Sajedi MA, Bahremand F. 2001. Effect of kidney bean and chicory diets on control of blood sugar in diabetic rats. Trauma Monthly, 6: 1-11.

Kim JS, Jin Y, Lemasters JJ. 2006. Reactive oxygen species, but not Ca2+ overloading, trigger pH- and mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent death of adult rat myocytes after ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 290: H2024-2034.

Kinugasa Y, Ogino K, Furuse Y, Shiomi T, Tsutsui H, Yamamoto T, Igawa O, Hisatome I, Shigemasa C. 2003. Allopurinol improves cardiac dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion via reduction of oxidative stress in isolated perfused rat hearts. Circ J, 67: 781-787.

Klawitter PF, Murray HN, Clanton TL, Angelos MG. (2002). Reactive oxygen species generated during myocardial ischemia enable energetic recovery during reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 283: H1656-1661.

Kocki T, Wielosz M, Turski WA, Urbanska EM. 2006. Enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production by anticonvulsants--novel mechanism of antiepileptic activity? Eur J Pharmacol, 541: 147-151.

Lesniewska V, Rowland I, Laerke HN, Grant G, Naughton PJ. 2006. Relationship between dietary-induced changes in intestinal commensal microflora and duodenojejunal myoelectric activity monitored by radiotelemetry in the rat in vivo. Exp physiol, 91: 229-237.

Lowenstein CJ. 2007.  Myocardial reperfusion injury. N Engl J Med. 357: 2409 -2410.

Madani H, Asgary S, Naderi  Gh, Talebolhosseini M:  2006. hepatoprotective effect of Chichorium Intybus L. on liver toxicity in rat.  J Med Plant,  5: 38-32.

Marin-Garcia J and Goldenthal MJ. 2004. Heart mitochondria signaling pathways: appraisal of an emerging field. J Mol Med (Berl), 82: 565-578.

McCormack JG, Halestrap AP, Denton RM. 1990. Role of calcium ions in regulation of mammalian intramitochondrial metabolism. Physiol Rev, 70: 391-425.

Piechowiak M, Banach M, Ruta J, Barylski M, Rysz J, Bartczak K, Markuszewski L, Zasłonka J, Gouch JH. 2006. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation in adult patients in long-term observation following surgical closure of atrial septal defect type II. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 54: 259-263.

Rasouli M, Hossein Zadeh H, Akbarpour A. 2000. The effects of Soxhlet aqueous extract of Chicory leaves on the blood pH & cations level & the sex of newborns in rat. Daneshvar Med J, 7: 57-64.

Roohbakhsh A and Karimi G. 2009. In vitro Evaluation of Xanthine oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Six Medicinal Plants. J Medicinal Plants, 8: 84-91.

Sakurai N, Iizuka T, Nakayama S, Funayama H, Noguchi M, Nagai M. 2003. Vasorelaxant Activity of Caffeic Acid Derivatives from Cichorium intybus and Equisetum arvense. Yakugaku Zasshi, 123: 593-598.

Sato M, Ray PS, Maulik G, Maulik N, Engelman RM, Bertelli AA, Bertelli A, Das DK. 2000. Myocardial protection with red wine extract. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 35: 263-268.

Schuppan D, Jia JD, Brinkhaus B, Hahn EG. 1999. Herbal products for liver diseases: a therapeutic challenge for the new millennium. Hepatology, 30: 1099-1104.

Swiader MJ, Luszczki JJ, Paruszewski R, Czuczwar SJ, Turski WA. 2006. Anticonvulsant and acute neurotoxic characteristics of nicotinic acid benzylamide: a preclinical study. Pharmacol rep, 58: 431-434.

Territo PR, Mootha VK, French SA, Balaban RS. 2000. Ca(2+) activation of heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation: role of the F(0)/F(1)-ATPase. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 278: C423-435.

Yellon DM and Hausenloy DJ. 2007. Myocardial reperfusion injury. N Engl J Med, 357: 1121-1135.

Zhang HY and Wang LF. 2002. Theoretical elucidation on structure-antioxidant activity relationships for indolinonic hydroxylamines. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 12: 225-227