Salvia officinalis induce alveolar bud growing in adults female rat mammary glands

Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Biology Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined.
Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay.
Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group.
Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb.


Main Subjects

Adlercreutz H, Bannwart C, Wahala K, Makela T, Brunow G, Hase T. 1993.

AlbertazziP, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, Zanotti L, Forini E, De Aloysio D. 1998. The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes. Obstet Gynecol, 91:6–11.

Alizade A, Shaabani M. 2012. Essential oil composition, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in (salvia officinalis L.) cultivated in Iran. Advances Environment Biol, 6:221- 226.

Baird DD, Umbach DM, Lansdell L, Hughes CL, Setchell KD, Weinberg CR, Haney AF, Wilcox AJ, Mclachlan JA. 1995. Dietary intervention study to assess estrogenicity of dietary soy among postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol Metab, 80: 1685–1690.

Bankroft JD, Stevens A. 1991. Theory and practical of histology techniques. New York, USA, Churchill Living stone.

Baricevic D, Sosa S, Della Loggia R, Tubaro A, Simonovska B, Krasna A. 2001. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid. Ethnopharmacol, 75:125- 132.

Edery M, McGrath M, Larson L, Nandi S. 1985.  Correlation between in vitro regulation of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in rat mammary epithelial cell. Endocrinol. 115:1691–1697.

 Hamidpour M, Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Shahlari M. 2014. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer. J Tradit Complement Med, 4: 82–88.

Haslam SZ, Shyamala G. 1981. Relative distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptor among the ephitelial, adipose, and connective tissue components of the normal mammary gland. Endocrinol, 108:  825–830.

Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 44:147–153.

Khan A, Najeeb-ur- Rahman, Alkharfy K, Gilani A. 2011. Antidiarrheal andantispasmodic activities of Salvia officinalis are mediated through activation of K + channels. J Bangladesh Pharmacol Soc, 6:111–116.

Kurzer M, Xiz Xu. 1997. Dietary Phytoestrogens. Annu  Rev Nutr, 17: 353–381.

Lilla NJ, Werb Z. 2010. Mast cells contribute to the stromal microenvironment in mammary gland branching morphogenesis. NIH Public Access Author Manuscript, 337: 124–133.

Lima CF, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Fernandes-Ferreira M, Pereira-Wilson C. 2005.  The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats.  Ethnopharmacol, 97: 383-389.

Loizzo MR, Tundis R, Menichini F, Saab AM, Statti GA, Menichini F. 2007. Cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Labiatae and Lauraceae families against in vitro human tumor models. Anticancer Res, 27: 3293–3299.

Montes GS, Luque EH. 1998. Effect of ovarian steroids on vaginal smears in the rat. Acta Anatomica, 133: 192-199.

Murkies AL, Lombard C, Strauss BJ, Wilcox G, Burger HG, Morton MS.1995. Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flushes: Effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas, 21: 189–195.

Nelson KG, Takahashi T, Lee DC. 1992. Transforming growth factor-a is apotential mediator of estrogen action in themouse uterus. Endocrinol, 131: 657 – 664.

Ososki AL, Kennelly EJ. 2003. Phytoestrogens: a review of the present state of research. Phyto Res, 17: 845-869.

Padilla-Banks E, Wendy N, Newbold JR. 2006. Neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein alters mammary gland growth and developmental programming of hormone receptor levels. Endocrinol, 147: 4871–4882.

Petrakis NL, Barnes S, King EB, Lowenstein J, Wiencke J, Lee MM, Miike R, Kirk M, Coward L.1996. Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre-and post-menopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 5: 785–794.

Sreenivasa MY, Dass RS, Raj APC, Janardhana GR. 2008. PCR method for the detection of genus Fusarium and fumonisin-producing isolates from freshly harvested sorghum grains grown In Karnataka, India. J Food Safe, 28: 236-247.

Sternlicht MD. 2006. Key stages in mammary gland development: The cues that regulate ductal branching morphogenesis. Breast Cancer Res, 8: 201–203. 

Walch S, Tinzoh L, Zimmerman B, Stuhlinger W, Lachenmeier D. 2011. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. Front Pharmacol, 2:29.

Watson CJ, Khaled WT. 2008. Mammary development in the embryo and adult: A journey of morphogenesis and commitment. Development, 135: 995–1003.

Wilcox G, Wahlqvist ML, Burger HG, Medley G. 1990. Oestrogenic effects of plant foods in postmenopausal women. Br Med J, 301: 905–906.

Yurtseven S, Cetin M, Sengiil T, Sogut B. 2008. Effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) on growth performance, blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in partridges. S Afr J Anim Sci, 38: 145-152.

Zargari A. 1994. Medical Plants, vol. 1, Tehran University, Tehran.