In Vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia Vogelii on Rhipicephalus Sanguineus in Abomey-Calavi

Document Type: Original Research Article


Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01BP2009 Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin


Objectives: Ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. The use of Tephrosia leafs’ extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central Kenya.
Materials and Methods: The present study’s aim is to inventory endogenous control methods against dogs’ ticks among which Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. From September to October 2013, a survey was made on forty randomly selected breeders and ticks samples were collected on forty dogs. The web platform,, was used for the survey. In total, 77.5% (n=40) of examined dogs were infested with ticks
Results: Three species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum. They were found on 77.5%, 17.5%, and 15% of examined dogs, respectively. The numerical abundance of the three species was 87.06%, 11.9%, and 1.03%, respectively. The average number of ticks per animal was 16.83±5.04, 2.3±1.64, and 0.2±0.08 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively. Farmers used manual diptank (67.5%), plant ash (37.5%), petroleum (12.5%), motor oil (2.50 %), and sea water (7.5%) to fight against ticks.
Conclusions: The phytochemical screening of the leafy stem’s powder of Tephrosia vogelii revealed the presence of catechol tannins, saponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. A 100% larval mortality was observed at the concentration of 20% the ethanolic extract of the leafy stem of Tephrosia vogelii. The LC50 of this ethanolic extract against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was equal to 2.6%.


Main Subjects

Abott WS. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18: 265-267.

Akoègninou A. 2004. Recherches botaniques et écologiques sur les forêts actuelles du Bénin. Thèse d’État, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 326 p.

Barre N. 1989. Biology and ecology of the tick Amblyomma variegatum (Acarina: Ixodina) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Thèse de doctorat en Sciences, Université de Paris Sud, 268 p.

Colley M. 2011. Insectes et Acariens – Maladies transmises par les tiques., consulté le 17 septembre 2013.

Dantas-Torres F. 2008. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): from taxonomy to control. Veterinary Parasitology, 152: 173-185.

Dantas-Torres F. 2010. Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Parasites and Vectors, 3: 26-37.

Dianzitoukoulou MLD. 2008. Étude de l’activité antiproliférative de Tephrosia vogelii sur Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mémoire de DEA de l’Université Marien Ngouabi.

Dipeolu OO. 1975. A survey of the ectoparasitic infestations of dogs in Nigeria. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 16: 123-129.

Dougnon TJ, Farougou S, Kpodékon TM, Hounmanou G, Hounnnonkpè D. 2013. Étude comparative de l’effet de l'extrait éthanolique des feuilles de Tephrosia vogelii et d’Alfapor® (Alpha-cyperméthrine) sur la tique Amblyomma variegatum chez le bovin Borgou. In Press; International Journal of Biosciences, 8: 120-125.

Dworkin MS, Shoemaker PC, Anderson DE. 1999. Tick paralysis: 33 human cases in Washington state, 1946-1996. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 29: 1435-1439.

Estrada-Pena A. 2005. Étude de la résistance de la tique brune du chien, Rhipicephalus sanguineus aux acaricides. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 156 (2): 67-69.

Farougou S, Kpodekon M, Adakal H, Sagbo P, Boko C. 2007. Abondance saisonnière des tiques (Acari : Ixodidae) parasites des ovins dans la région méridionale du Bénin. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 158 (12): 627-632.

Fernández-Salas A, Alonso-Díaz MA, Acosta-Rodríguez R, Torres-Acosta JF, Sandoval-Castro CA, Rodriguez-Vivas RI. 2011. In vitro acaricidal effect of tannin-rich plants against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Veterinary Parasitology, 175: 113-8.

François JB. 2008. Les tiques chez les bovins en France. Thèse de l’Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy 1, Faculté de pharmacie, 130 p.

Freyre RH, Barnes DK. 1967. Recovery of natural insecticides from Tephrosia vogelii. III. An improved procedure for sampling and assaying rotenoid content in leaves. Economic Botany, 21: 93-8.

Gadzirayi CT, Mutandwa E, Mwale M, Chindundu T. 2009. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by small-scale commercial farmers in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (17): 4134-4136.

Henna M, Keruma T, Kaiga M. 1990. The distribution of ixodid ticks in Okinawa Prefecture. Annual Report of Okinawa Prefecture. Institute of Animal Health, 25: 45-51.

Horak IG, Matthee S. 2003. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIII. Ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the Western Cape Province. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 70: 187-195.

Hounzangbe-Adote S. 2001. L'élevage face à la pharmacopée en médecine vétérinaire au sud du Bénin. Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique, 33:20-29.

Hughes J, Macdonald DW. 2013. A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife. Biological Conservation, 157: 341-351.

Inokuma H, Yamamoto S, Tanahara N, Kiyuna T, Oshiro S. 1998. Tick infestation and tick-borne diseases infection of dogs in Okinawa Island. Journal of Japanese Veterinary Medical Association, 51: 361-364.

Jacobs PAH, Fourie LJ, Kok DJ, Horak IG. 2001. Diversity, seasonality and sites of attachment of adult ixodid ticks on dogs in the central region of the Free State Province, South Africa. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 68: 281-290.

Jongejan F, Zivkovic D, Pegra MRG, Tatchell RJ, Fison T, Latif AA, Paine P. 1987. Ticks of the blue and white Nile ecosystems in the Sudan with particular reference to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 3: 331-346.

Kalume MK, Losson B, Angenot L, Tits M, Wauters JN, Frédérich M, Saegerman C. 2012. Rotenoid content and in vitro acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Veterinary Parasitology, 190: 204-209.

Kamuanga M. 2003. Rôle de l'animal et de l'élevage dans les espaces et les systèmes agraires des savanes soudano-sahéliennes : note introductive au thème 3. In Savanes africaines : des espaces en mutation, des acteurs face à de nouveaux défis. Actes du colloque, Garoua, Cameroun. P9.

Koch HG. 1982. Oviposition of the brown dog tick (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 75: 583-586.

Matovu H, Olila D, 2007. Acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii extracts on nymph and adult ticks. International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2: 83-88.

Matter HC, Daniels TJ. 2000. Dogs, Zoonoses and Public Health. C. N. L. Macpherson, F. X. Meslin, et A. I. Wandeler. (Wallingford, UK: CAB International), 17-62.

Morel PC, Troncy PM. 2000. Précis de parasitologie vétérinaire tropicale, Éditions Tec & Doc, 451-774.

Noudogbessi JP, Sessou P, Wotto VD, Figueredo G, Chalard P, Chalchat JC, Dansou K, Sohounhloué DCK. 2012. Chemical compositions and preventive activity of essential oils extracted from the leaves of two varieties of Tephrosia (Leguminosae-papilionoideae) collected in Benin on Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, 5: 1431-1436.

PACE. Tephrosia vogelii. Pace Project. Action Sheet 53. 2013.

Parola P, Raoult D. 2001. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32: 897-928.

Pourrut X, Emane KA, Camicas JL, Leroy E, Gonzalez JP. 2011. Contribution to the knowledge of ticks (acarina: ixodidae) in Gabon. Acarologia, 51: 465–471.

Shimada Y, Beppu T, Inokuma H, Okuda M, Onishi T. 2003. Ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs in Japan. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 17: 38-45.

Smith FD, Ballantyne R, Morgan ER, Wall R. 2011. Prevalence and risk associated with tick infestation of dogs in Great Britain. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 25: 377–384.

Smith ME, Linnell JDC., Odden J, Swenson JE. 2000. Review of Methods to Reduce Livestock Depredation: I. Guardian Animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science, 50: 279-290.

Ugbomoiko US, Ariza L, Heukelbach J. 2008. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners. BMC, Veterinary Research, 4: 49-55.

Ugochukwu EL, Nnadozie CC. 1985. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria. International Journal of Zoonoses, 12: 308-312.

Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG, Latif AA, Pegram RG, Preston PM. 2007. Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: a Guide to Identification of Species. © The University of Edinburgh, 221 p.

Wandeler AI, Matter HC, Kappeler A, Budde A. 1993. The ecology of dogs and canine rabies: a selective review. OIE, Revue Scientifique et Technique, 12: 51-71.