Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

Document Type: Original Research Article


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, I. R. Iran


Objective: Plantago major (P. major) is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats.
Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C) received normal saline; Asthma (A) group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w.) (T); Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w.) (P). Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope.
Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05). Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.


Asthmatic airways and induces human bronchial fibroblasts to produce cytokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 108: 430-438.

Bartlett NW, Walton RP, Edwards MR, Aniscenko J, Caramori G, Zhu J, Glanville N, Choy KJ, Jourdan P, Burnet J, et al. 2008. Mouse models of rhinovirus-induced disease and exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Nat Med, 14: 199-204.

Boskabady M, Ouladi MR. 2002. Children's medication regimen Comparison of the effects bronchodilators. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 1:26-21.

Boskabady MH, Rakhshandah H, Afiat M, Aelami Z, Amiri S. 2006. Anti tussive effect of Plantago lanceolata in guinea pigs. Iran J Med Sci, 31: 143-146.

Boyce JA, Austen KF. 2005. No audible wheezing: nuggets and conundrums from mouse asthma models. J Exp Med, 201: 1869-1873.

Duke James. 2001. Handbook of Edible Weeds.CRC Press.p.151.ISBN.

Fatemi1 F, Allameh1 A, Khalafi H, Rezaei MB, Seyhoon M. 2010. The effect of essential oils and hydroalcoholic extract of caraway seed on oxidativestress parameters in rats suffering from acute lung inflammation before and after γ-irradiation. Iran J Med Aromatic Plant, 25: 44-49.

Galvez M, Cordero MC, Cortes F, Ayus MY. 2003. Cytotixic effect of Plantago spp.on canceralllins. J Ethopharmacol, 88: 125-130.

Green, James. 2000. The Herbal Medicine Maker's Handbook: A Home Manual. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 3: 14-315.

Hellings PW, Kasran A, Liu Z, Vandekerckhove P, Wuyts A. 2003.Interleukin-17 Orchestrates the Granulocyte Influx into Airways after Allergen Inhalation in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol  Biol, 28: 42-50.

Khosrou A, Sarvghadi F. 2006. The investigation of Hypogonadism and the level of the serum of free testostron in chemical injures who suffer from asthma which is the result of sulfur demostard. Military J Med Sci, 4: 975-979.

Kumar RK, Foster PS. 2002. Modeling allergic asthma in mice: pitfalls and opportunities. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 27: 267-272.

Makhlogh E, MohseniA, Bagheri B, Fatahian E. 2006. The investigation of the effect of theophylline on the contrast of nephropathy results from the angiography of corner vessels. Med sci Mazandaran, 16: 27-34.

Molet S, Hamid Q, Davoine F, Nutku E, Taha R, Pagé N. 2001. IL-17 is increased in asthmatic airways and induces human bronchial fibroblasts to produce cytokines. J Allergy Clin Immunol.  108: 430-438.

Mukhtar M, Arshad M, Ahmad M, Pomerantz RJ, WigdahlB, Parveen Z. 2008. Antiviral potentials of medicinal plants .Virus Res, 131: 111-120.

Poli G, Leonarduzzi G, Biasi F, et al. 2004. Oxidative stress and cell signaling. Curr Med Chem, 11: 1163-1182.

Pour Ismail Z, Shouri BidgoliR, Zaragari E. 2009. The effect of the suspension the plantago's leaf in prevention of the inflammation of mouth which is the result of the chemotherapy. J med sci Shahid Beheshti Univ, 3: 175-179

Pouraboli I, Hajizadeh S, Najafipour H, Khoshbaten A, Rasaei M. 2008. Does PGE2 mediate indomethacin and theophylline effects on joint diameter and vascular response to saphenous nerve stimulationin chronically inflamed rat knee joint. Physiol Pharmacol, 12: 68 - 75

Rahimian M. 2002. The study of the effect of inspiration of the extract of Darmaneh plant on the health and spirometric of asthema sickness. J med sci Yazd, 10: 20-25

Razavi M,  Zahedi Y, Mahdavian Mehr H. 2009. The engineer of the seed of plantago. Res publication food indust, 2: 88-96.

Samuelsen AB. 2000. The traditionaluses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. Rev J Ethnopharmacol, 71: 1-21.

Sanati A, Sadegiyan H. 2009. Theophylline effects in patients with syndrome x. J Med Sci Tehran, 3: 20-23

Scordamaglia A, Ciprandi G, Ruffoni S. 1988. Theophylline and the immune response: in vitro and in vivo effects. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 48: 238-246.

Sergejeva S, Ivanov S, Lotvall J, Lidn A. 2005. Interlukin-17 as a recruitment and survival factorfor airway macrophages in allergic airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 33: 248-53.

Sohrabi M,  Alaedini A, Javanbakht M,  Sarban M, Marandi P. 2009. The approach of exchanging and spectrophotometry to analyze Hemezman teophillin and gabaphizin in drug formulation. Appl chem publication, 9: 15-20.

Sullivan P, Bekir S, Jaffar Z, Page C, Jeffery P, Costello J. 1994. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose oral theophylline in atopic asthma. Lancet.343:1006-1008.

Tilford M, Gregory L. 1997. Edible and  Medicinal Plants of the West . Mountain Press. p. 112.

Tilford Gregory L and Gladstar  Rosemary . 1998. From Earth to Herbalist Conscious Guide to Medicinal Plants. Mountain Press. p. 160.  

Velasco-Lezama R, Tapia Aguilar R, Roman-Ramos R, Vega-Avila E, Perez-Gutiierrez Ma. 2006. Effect of Plantago major on cell proliferation in vitro .J Ethnopharmacol, 103: 36-42.

Wagelie steffen AL, Kavanaugh AF, Wasserman IS. 2006 .Biologic Therapies for the Treatmentof Asthma. Clin Chest Med, 103: 36-42

Welton AF and Simko BA. 1980. Regulatory role of adenosine in antigen-induced histamine release from the lung tissue of actively sensitized guinea pigs. Biochem Pharmacol, 29: 1085-1092.

Zhou Y, McLane M, Levitt RC. 2001. Th2 cytokines and asthma. Interleukin-9 as a therapeutictarget for asthma. Respir Res, 2: 80-84.