1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Birjand, Iran
2Department of General Surgery, BUMS, Birjand ,Iran
3Department of Anatomy, BUMS, Birjand, Iran
4Department of Biostatistics, BUMS, Birjand, Iran
5Department of Public Health, Research Centre of Experimental Medicine, BUMS, Birjand, Iran
Objectives: Turnip leaf has been used in folk medicine of Iran for the treatment of diabetes. However,so far no scientific study has been done to support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible hypoglycemic efficacy of aqueous extract of turnip leaf (AETL) in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were orally treated with AETL at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for 28 days. In order to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity, fasting blood glucose concentrations were determined on the 1st, 14th and 29th days. Moreover,at the end of the study, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), aspartate amino transfarase (AST), and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured by the use of standard kits and auto-analyzer. Results:Both doses of AETL significantly decreased (p<0.001) blood glucose and ALT levels in diabetic rats after 28 days of administration. AETL at both doses decreased (p<0.05) plasma total cholesterol and LDL-c in diabetic rats, but they significantly decreased (p<0.05) HDL-c and increased triglycerideand AST levels in a-dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results showed that AETL has a dose- dependent decrease in the blood glucose in diabetic rats. However,we should not be unaware of adverse effects of AETL on lipid profiles and liver enzymes activity, especially decrease of HDL and increase of TG and AST.
Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. 2006. Metabolic syndrome:a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med, 23: 469-80.
Arobene A, Braga F, Roraas T, Sandberg S, Bartlett WA. 2013. A systematic review of data on biological variation for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. ClinChem Lab Med,51: 1997-2007.
Asgary S, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Shamsi F, Najafi S, Sahebkar A.2014. Biochemical andhistopathological study of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Complement Integr Med, 11: 63-9.
Bliss M. 2007.The Discovery of Insulin. university of chicagi press. Chicago, USA.
Chang HY, Wallis M and Tiralongo E. 2007. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes: literature review. J AdvNurs, 58: 307-319.
Cheng A,Chen X, Jin Q, Wang W, Shi J, Liu Y. 2013. Comparison of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Red and Yellow Onions. Czech J Food Sci, 31: 8.
Chikhi I, Allali H, El Amine Dib M, Medjdoub H, Tabti B.2014.Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Atriplexhalimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) in streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 4: 181-4.
Dixon GR .2006.Vegetable Brassicas and related crucifers. CABI, UK.
El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, El-Naga NI. 2005.Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol,43: 57-63.
Erejuwa O, Sulaiman S, Wahab M, Sirajudeen K, Salleh M, Gurtu S. 2012. Hepatoprotective effect of tualang honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. IntJ ApplResNatProd,4: 37-41.
EzuruikeU. F, Prieto J. M. 2014. The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria: Pharmacological and toxicological considerations. J Ethnopharmacol, 155: 857-924.
Fernandes F, Valentao P, Sousa C, Pereira JA, Seabra RM, Andrade PB. 2007. Chemical and antioxidative assessment of dietary turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa L.). Food Chem, 105: 1003-1010.
Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K. 2008.Glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia. Am J ClinNutr, 87: 217S-222S.
Gonzalez E, McGraw TE. 2006. Insulin signaling diverges into Akt-dependent and -independent signals to regulate the recruitment/docking and the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. MolBiol Cell, 17: 4484-4493.
Goto T, Horita M, Nagai H, Nagatomo A, Nishida N, Matsuura Y, Nagaoka S. 2012.Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, inhibits carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. MolNutr Food Res, 56: 435-445.
Grossman A, Johannsson G, Quinkler M, Zelissen P. 2013. Therapy of endocrine disease: Perspectives on the management of adrenal insufficiency: clinical insights from across Europe. Eur J Endocrinol, 169: R165-175.
Jelodar G, Maleki M, Motadayen M, Sirus S. 2005. Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Med Sci, 59: 64-69.
Javadzadeh SM and Pouyan M .2010.(1steds) Medicinal plants in Qaenat.SokhanGostar, Mashhad , Iran.
Jung UJ, Baek NI, Chung HG, Bang MH, Jeong TS, Lee KT, Kang YJ, Lee MK, Kim HJ, Yeo J and Choi MS .2008. Effect of the ethanol extract of the roots of Brassica rapa on glucose and lipid metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. ClinNutr, 27: 158-167.
Karthik D, Ravikumar S. 2011. A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats. Biomed Environ Sci, 24: 190-199.
Kumar R, Balaji S, Uma TS, Sehgal PK.2009. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K. J Ethnopharmacol, 126: 533-537.
Lim SS, Jung YJ, Hyun SK, Lee YS, Choi JS .2006. Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory constituents of Nelumbonucifera stamens.Phytother Res, 20: 825–830
Liu SH, Chang YH, Chiang MT.2010.Chitosan reduces gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem, 58: 5795-5800.
Lu X, Ross CF, Powers JR, Aston DE, Rasco BA. 2011.Determination of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Elephant Garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem, 59: 5215-5221.
Mohajeri D, AmouoghliTabrizi B, Doustar Y and Nazeri M. Brassica rapa L. root extract alleviate early hepatic injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats .2011. J Med plants Res, 5: 6813-6821.
Nathan DM.2007. Finding new treatments for diabetes - How many, how fast... how good?.N Engl J Med, 356: 437-440.
Park CE, Kim MJ, Lee JH, Min BI, Bae H, Choe W, Kim SS, Ha J.2007.Resveratrol stimulates glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. ExpMol Med, 39: 222-229.
Romani A, Vignolini P, Isolani L, Leri F, Heimler D .2006. HPLC-DAD/MS characterization of flavonoids and hydrocinnamic derivatives in turnip top (Brassica rapa L. Subsp. Sylvestris L.). J Agric food Chem, 54: 1342-1360.
Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Gerstein H, Raina P,Booker L, Yazdi H. 2005.Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ), 128: 1-11.
Schonhof I, Krumbein A, Bruckner B .2004.Genotypic effects on glucosinolates and sensory properties of broccoli and cauliflower.Nahrung, 48: 25–33.
Seasotiya L, Siwach P, Bai S, Malik A, Bharti P, Dalal S. 2014. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and phytochemical analysis of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum. Asian Pac J Health Sci, 1: 219-226.
Sharma SB, Nasir A, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS, Dev G. 2003. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol, 85: 201-206.
Shirwaikar A, Rajendran K, Barik R. 2006. Effect of aqueous bark extract of GarugapinnataRoxb.instreptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol, 107: 285-290.
Soccio Raymond E, Chen Eric R, Lazar Mitchell A. 2014. Thiazolidinediones and the Promise of Insulin Sensitization in Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metabolism, 20: 573-591.
Szudelski T. 2001. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in β-cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res, 50: 537-546.
Szkudelski T.2006. Resveratrol inhibits insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets. Eur J Pharmacol, 552: 176-181.
Szkudelski T, Szkudelska K. 2011 Jan .Anti-diabetic effects of resveratrol. Ann NY AcadSci, 1215: 34-39.
Tabatabaei-Malazy O, Larijani B, Abdollahi M. 2013.A novel management of diabetes by means of strong antioxidants’ combination. Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas,7: 25-30.
Tadera K, Minami Y, Takamatsu K, Matsuoka T. 2006. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase by flavonoids. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 52: 149-153.
Tiwani P, Kumar B, Kaur G and Kaur H. 2011.Phytochrmical screening and extraction: A review. IPS, 1: 98-106.
Vessal M, Hemmati M, Vasei M. 2003. Antidiabetic effects of quercetin in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol , 135C: 357-364.
Waltner-Law ME, Wang XL, Law BK, Hall RK, Nawano M, Granner DK. 2002. Epigallocatechin gallate, a constituent of green tea, represses hepatic glucose production. J Biol Chem, 277: 34933-34940.
Wan L-s, Chen C-p, Xiao Z-q, Wang Y-l, Min Q-x, Yue Y, Chen J.2013. In vitro and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of Swertia kouitchensis extract. J Ethnopharmacol, 147: 622-630.
Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C and Shaw J. 2011. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 94: 311-321.
Yang MY, Peng CH, Chan KC, Yang YS, Huang CN, Wang CJ.2010.The hypolipidemic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting hepatic lipid clearance. J Agric Food Chem;58: 850-859.
Yin P, Zhao S, Chen S, Liu J, Shi L, Wang X, Liu Y, Ma C. 2011. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenols from burs of Castanea mollissima Blume. Molecules, 16: 9764-9774.
Zivkovic J, Mujic I, Zekovich Z, Nikolic G, Vidovic S and Muji. 2009. Extraction and analysis of condensed tannins in Castanea Sativa. J Cent Eur Agric, 10: 283-288.
Zang M, Xu S, Maitland-Toolan KA, Zuccollo A, Hou X, Jiang B, Wierzbicki M, Verbeuren TJ, Cohen RA. 2006. Polyphenols stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase, lower lipids, and inhibit accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice. Diabetes, 55: 2180-2191.
Zhang B, Kang M, Xie Q, Xu B, Sun C, Chen K, Wu Y. 2011. Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect beta cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation. J Agric Food Chem, 59: 537-45.