Evaluation of thrombolytic potential of three medicinal plants available in Bangladesh, as a potent source of thrombolytic compounds

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali- 3814, Bangladesh

Abstract

Objective: The present study is aimed to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants Averrhoa bilimbi (Oxalidiaceae), Clerodendrum viscosum (Verbanaceae) and Drynaria quercifolia (Polypodiaceae).
Materials and methods: Each the plant was extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extracts (MEF) were fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to render pet-ether soluble fraction (PESF), carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction (CTSF), chloroform soluble fraction (CSF) and aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF). To observe their thrombolytic potential, a prompt and swift method was involved where streptokinase and water were used as positive and negative control, respectively.
Result: Among the three plants, AQSF and PESF of D. quercifolia with CTSF of C. viscosum exhibited highest thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 34.38%, 34.27% and 28.64%, respectively. Among other extracts A. bilimbi, C. viscosun and D.quercifolia showed significant percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to standard streptokinase (41.05%) while the negative control water revealed 3.31 % lysis of clot.
Conclusion: From our findings it is observed that all the plants revealed remarkable thrombolytic activity. Therefore, steps should be taken to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s) of these extracts.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Adams DS, Griffi LA, Nachajko WR, Reddy VB, Wei CM. 1991.A synthetic DNA encoding a modified human urokinase resistant to inhibition by serum plasminogen activator inhibitor. J Biol Chem, 266: 8476-8482

Ali MR, Kuri S, Das A, Islam MA. 2013. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Thrombolytic Potential of the Methanolic Extract of Enhydra FluctuansLour (Leaves). Int J  Pharmamedix India, 1: 270-280.

Banerjee A, Chisti Y and. Banerjee UC.2004. Streptokinase-a clinically useful thrombolytic agent research review paper. Biotechnol Adv, 22: 287-307

Baruah DB, Dash RN, Chaudhari MR, Kadam SS. 2006. Plasminogen activators: A comparison. Vascular Pharmacol, 44: 1-9

Bazzano LA, He LG, Ogden,CM, Loria S, Vupputuri L, Myers PK,Whelton. 2002. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first national health and nutrition examination survey epidemiologic follow-up study. Am. J Clin Nutr, 76: 93-99

Bhattacharya S. Chrinjibbanoushadi. 1990. 10th vol., 1st ed., Calcutta, India, Anand Publishing Ltd, pp. 223-226.

Capstick T, Henry MT. 2005. Efficacy of thrombolytic agents in the treatment of pulmonary embolism. Eur Respir, 26: 864-874.

De P, Chaudhuri D, Tamang S, Chaudhuri TK, Mandal N. 2012.In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Clerodendrum viscosum. Int J Pharm Bio Sci, 3: 454 – 471

Gallus AS. 1998. Thrombolytic therapy for venous thrombosis & pulmonary embolism. Bailliereûs Clin Haematol, 11: 663-673.

Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Posner BM, Ellison RC, Castelli WC, and Wolf PA. 1995. Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. JAMA, 273: 1113-1117.

Hasanuzzaman M, Ali MR, Hossain M, Kuri S, Islam MS. 2013. Evaluation of total phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi (fruits). Int curr pharm j, 2: 92-96

Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Stampher MJ, Rimm EB, and Speizer FE.1999. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA, 282: 1233-1239

Kirtikar KR &Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2001. Vol.8, edited by Mhaskar KS &Cains JF. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, pp. 2674.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. 1994. 4th vol., 2nd ed., Dehra Dun, India, Dehra Dun Publisher Ltd, pp. 2745-2746.

Laurence DR, Bennett PN. 1992. Clinical Pharmacology. Churchill Livingstone, seventh edition, New York, pp. 483

Leta GC,Mourao PAS, and Tovar AMF. 2002. Human venous and arterial glycosaminoglycans have similar affinity for plasma low-density lipoproteins: Biochim. Biophys Acta, 586: 243-253.

Lijnen HR, Vanhoef B, DeCock F, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo. 1991. On the mechanism of fibrin-specific plasminogen activation by staphylokinase. J Biol Chem, 266: 11826-11832

Liu S, Manson JE, Lee IM, Cole SR, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, and Buring JE. 2000. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the womenûs health study. Am J Clin Nutr, 72: 922-928.

Marder VJ. 1993. Recombinant streptokinase – opportunity for an improved agent. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 4: 1039-1040.

Nicolini FA, Nichols WW, Mehta JL, Saldeen TG, 1992. Schofield R, Ross M, Player DW, Pohl GB, Mattsson C. Sustained reflow in dogs with coronary thrombosis with K2P, a novel mutant of tissue plasminogen activator. J Am Coll Cardiol, 20: 228-235.

Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF. 2007.Effect of Fagoniaarabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis. BMC Complement Altern Med, 7: 36.

Prentice CRM. 1999. Platelets and Atherosclerosis Eur. Heart J. Suppl, 1: A3-A7.

Ramesh N, Viswanathan MB, Saraswathy A, Balakrishna K, Brindha P, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. 2001. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on Drynaria quercifolia. Fitoterapia, 72: 934-936.

Ratnasooriya WD, Fernando TSP, and Madubashini PP. 2008. In vitro thrombolytic activity of Sri Lankan black tea, Camellia sinensis (L.). Kuntze J Nat Sci Found, 36: 179-181

Roy A, Geetha RV, Lakshmi T. 2011. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn–Nature’s Drug Store- A Pharmacological Review. Int J  Drug Dev  Res, 3: 101-106.

Runa JF, Hossain M, Hasanuzzaman M, Ali MR. 2013. Investigation of Phenolic Profiles, Cytotoxic Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Different Extracts of Drynaria quercifolia J. Smith (Leaves), 3: 465-467

Santanu S, Kanti MU, Dilipkumar P, Lipsa MS. 2009. Hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phcog Net, 5: 394-399.

Vanwagenen BC, Larsen R, Cardellina JH, Ran dazzo D, Lidert ZC, Swithenbank C. 1993. Ulosantoin, a potent insecticide from the sponge Ulosaruetzleri. J Org Chem, 58: 335–337

Wardlaw JM, Berge E, Zoppo GD, and Yamaguchi T. Thrombolysis for acute ischemic 2004. Stroke, 35: 2914- 2915

Wu DH, Shi GY, Chuang WJ, Hsu JM, Young KC, Chang CW. 2001. Coiled coil region of streptokinase gamma-domain is essential for plasminogen activation. J Biol Chem, 276: 15025–15033.