Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L.) in both fresh and dried samples

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran

Abstract

Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L.) in both fresh and dried samples.
Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents) and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Reducing Power Assay (RPA), Chain Breaking Activity (CBA), and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),Nitric Oxide (NO),Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide(O2-) radicals inhibition.
Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977). Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Findings suggest that the fresh samples are more successful in collecting oxygen free radicals such as superoxide (O2-) and peroxy radicals (ROO.) than dried.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Agata MP, Fabiano C, Alessandra B. 2009.Quali-quantitative analysis of flavonoids of Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) fruits. Food Chem, 115: 450-455.

Alesiani D, Canini A, D’abrosca B, Dellagreca M, Fiorentino A, Mastellone C, Monaco P, PacificoS. 2010. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phytochemicals from Quince (Cydonia vulgaris) peels. Food Chem, 118: 199-207.

Barros L, Baptista P, Ferreira ICFR. 2007. Effect of Lactariuspiperatus fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays. Food ChemToxicol, 45: 1731-1737.

Bergendi L, Benes L, Durackova Z. 1999. Chemistry, physiology and pathology of free radicals. LifeSci, 65: 1865-1874.

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. 1995. Use of free radical method to evaluate the antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Sci Technol, 28: 25-30.

Cao G, Sofic E, Prior LR. 1997. Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure–activity relationships. Free Radical Biol Med, 22: 749-760.

Cevallos-Casals BA, Byrne D, Okie WR, Cisneros-Zevallos L. 2006. Selecting new peach and plum genotypes rich in phenolic compounds and enhanced functional properties. Food Chem, 96: 273-280.

Chawla AS, Kapoor VK, Sangal PK, Gupta AK, Evans F. 1976. Chemical constituents of tricholepisglaberrima. Planta Medica, 30: 151-153.

Chun OK, Kim DO. 2004. Consideration on equivalent chemicals in total phenolic assay of chlorogenic acid-rich plums. Food Res Int, 37: 337-342.

Cieslik E, Greda A, Adamus W. 2006. Contents of polyphenols in fruits and vegetables. Food Chem, 94: 135-142.

Dolatkhani P, Jamei R. 2013. Antioxidant and antiradical activities assessment in two Hawthorn species fruit components. CurrNutr Food Sci, 9: 52-58.

Donovan JL, Meyer AS, Waterhouse AL. 1998. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of prunes and prune juice (Prunusdomestica). J Agric Food Chem, 46: 1247-1252.

Farag RS, Badei AZMA, Hawed FM, El-Baroty GSA. 1989. Antioxidant activity of some spice essential oils on linoleic acid oxidation in aqueous media. J Am Oil ChemSoc, 66: 793-799.

Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P, Vilas-Boas M. 2007. Free-radical scavenging capacity and reducing power of wild edible mushrooms from northeast Portugal. Food Chem, 100: 1511-1516.

Garrat DC. 1964. The quantitative analysis of drugs. Japan,pp. 456-458.Chapman and Hall.

Horwitz W. 1984. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Washington, D. C: 14 TH Ed. AOAC.

Jabeen Q, Aslam N. 2001. The pharmacological activities of prunes: The dried plums. Res J Med Plant, 5: 1508-1511.

Jahanban-Isfahlan A, Mahmoodzadeh A, Hassanzadeh A, Heidari R, Jamei R. 2010. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of phenolic extracts from Iranian almond (Prunusamygdalus L.) hulls and shells. Turk JBiol, 34: 165-173.

Jing TY, Zhao XY. 1995. The improved pyrogallol method by using terminating agent for superoxide dismutase measurement. Progress in BiochemBiophys, 22: 84-86.

Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ. 1999. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem, 47: 3954-3962.

Kikuzaki H, Kayano S, Fukutsuka N, Aoki A, Kasamatsu K, Yamasaki Y, Mitani T, Nakatani N. 2004. Abscisic acid related compounds and lignins in prunes (Prunusdomestica L.) and their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). J Agric Food Chem, 52: 344-349.

Kim DO, Chun OK, Kim YJ, Moon HY, Lee CY. 2003. Quantification of polyphenolics and their antioxidant capacity in fresh plums. J Agric Food Chem, 51: 6509-6515.

Kimura Y, Ito H, Kawaji M, Ikami T, Hatano T. 2008. Characterization and antioxidative properties of oligomericproanthocyanidin from prunes, dried fruit of Prunusdomestica L. BiosciBiotechnolBiochem, 72: 1615-1618.

Kristl J, Slekovec M, Tojnko S, Unuk T. 2011. Extractable antioxidants and non-extractable phenolics in the total antioxidant activity of selected plum cultivars (Prunusdomestica L.): Evolution during on-tree ripening. Food Chem, 125: 29-34.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. 2007. In-vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of fine Phyllanthus species from India. J Food SciTechnol, 40: 344-352.

LI TSC. 2008. Vegetables and fruits: nutritional and therapeutic values. Taylor and Francis Group, USA. 169,195, 198: 202–203.

Madaru MA, Sanguinetti AM, Caro AD, Fadda C, Piga A. 2010. Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant activity of prunes. J Food Quality, 33: 155-170.

Marcocci L, Packer L, Droy-Lefai MT. 1994. Antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extracts. EGB 761. Method Enzymol, 234: 462-475.

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem, 269: 337-341.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1996. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free RadicallBiol Med,20: 933-956.

Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klauring JE. 1989. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intracellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. J Carcinogenesis, 10: 1003-1008.

Saha MN, Alam MA,  Aktar R, Jahangir R. 2008. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Ixoracoccinea L. Bangladesh J Pharmacol, 3: 90-96.

Scalbert A, Williamson G. 2000. Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr, 130:2073-2085.

Shui GH, Leong LP. 2004. Analysis of polyphenolic antioxidants in star fruit using liquid hromatography and mass spectrometry. J Chrom, 1022: 67-75.

Siddiq M. 2006. Plums and Prunes. In Hui, YH (ed) Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing, Blackwell Publishing Professional, Lowa: 553-564.

Siriwardhana SSKW, Shahidi F. 2002. Antiradical activity of extracts of almond and its by-products. J Am Oil ChemSoc, 79: 903-908.

Stratil P, Klejdus B, Kuban V. 2007. Determination of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in fruits and cereals. Talanta, 71: 1741-1751.

Umamaheswari M, Chatterjee TK. 2008. In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of cocciniagrandis L. leaf extract. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 5: 61-73.

Vasantha Rupasinghe HP, Jayasankar S, Lay W. 2006. Variation in total phenolic and antioxidant capacity among European plum genotypes. SciHort, 108: 243-246.

Vijaya Kumar Reddy C, Sreeramulu D, Raghunath M. 2010. Antioxidant activity of fresh and dry fruits commonly consumed in India. Food Res Int, 43: 285-288.

Williams GM, Jeffrey AM. 2000. Oxidative DNA damage: endogenous and chemically induced. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 32: 283-292.

Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz GB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL. 2004. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J Agric Food Chem, 52: 4026-4037.

Yildirim A, Mavi A, Kara AA. 2001. Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumexcrispus L. extracts. J Agric Food Chem, 49: 4083-4089. 

Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem, 64: 555-559.