Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower)

Document Type: Short communication


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, I. R. Iran


Objectives: Leaves and flowers ofElaeagnus angustifolia contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds. These compounds have antioxidant properties that protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze total phenolic and flavonoid content of leaves and flowers in two E. angustifolia variants using different solvents (ethanol and methanol).
Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant leaves and flowers were prepared. Experiments were carried out to measure their phenolic and flavonoid content using two solvents. Data were analyzed using Instat-N software.
Results:Results showed that the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in Fariman variant compared with Mashhad variant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Fariman variant had the highest amount of phenolic compound (10.91±0.18, 10.28± 0.36 mgGAE/100gFW, respectively) and also the highest amounts of flavonoids (5.80±0.10, 3.36±0.05 mgQE/100gFW, respectively). Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were better extracted using methanol and ethanol solvent.
Conclusion: In both varieties and solvents, the amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in leaves were higher than flowers. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoids compounds were higher in Fariman compared to Mashhad variants.


Alexandru V, Balan M, Gaspar A, Craciunescu O, Moldovan L. 2007. Studies on the antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of some selected Romanian medicinal plants used for wound healing Biological Sciences. J Biosci, 296: 1831-1838.

Andersen OM, Markham KR. 2006. Flavonoids Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. Pp.145-154,CRC Press, Tylor & Francis.

Ayaz FA, Kadioğlu A, Doğru A. 1999. Soluble suger composition of Elaeagnus angostiholio L. var. orientalis (L.) Kuntze (Russian olive) fruits. Botany, 23: 349-354.

Bang IS, Park HY, Yuh CS, Kim AJ, YU CY, Ghimire B, Lee HS, Park  JG, Choung  MG, Lim JD.   2007. Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Compounds Compisition of Extracts from Mulberry (Morus  alba L.) Fruit. Korean J Med Crop Sci, 15: 120-127.

Bonvehi JS, Torrento MS, Lorente EC. 2001. Evaluation of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds in honeybee-collected pollen produced in spain. J Agricul Food Chem, 49: 1848-1853.

Bucur L, lase L, Istudor V, Popescu A. 2009. Hplc-ms analysis of the polyphenols in two soft extracts of Elaeagnus angustifolia l. note 2. soft extract of young branches analysis. Farmacia, 57: 736-742.

Dembinska-Migas W, Gill S. 1973. Flavonoids in leaves of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm, 25: 599-606.

Dokhani  SH, Cotrell T, Khajeddin J, Mazza G. 2005. Analysis of Aroma and Phenolic Components of Selected Achillea Species. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 60: 55-62.
Duh PD, Tu YY, Yen GC. 1999. Antioxidant activity of water extract of Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat). LWT - Food Sci Technol, 32: 269-277.

Frankel EN. 1999. Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J Sci Food Agr, 54: 495-511.

Ge Y, Liu J, Su D. 2009. In vivo evaluation of the anti- asthmatic, antitussive and expectorant activities of extract and fraction from Elaeagnus Pungens Leaf. J Ethnopharmacol, 126: 538-542.

Harborne JB. 1998. Phytochemical methods. 3th ed, P.5-7, New York: Chapman & Hall.

Hatano T, Edamatsu R, Mori A, Fujita Y, Yasuhara E. 1989. Effect of interaction of tannins with co-existing substances. VI. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide anion radical and on DPPH radical. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 37: 2016-2021.

Horwitz W. 1984. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Washington, D. C. 14th Ed. AOAC.

Huang MT, Ho CT, Tee CY. 1992. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health ll. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention, PP 402, ACS: Washington.

In-Cheol J, Eun-Kyung J, Myung-Suk B, Hyun-Jung L, Gyeong-Im J, Eunju P, Hyun-Gyun Y, Gwang-Hwan A, Seung-Cheol L. 2010. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different parts of persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Fuyu) fruit. J Med Plants Res, 4: 155-160.

Jahanban Isfahlan A, Mahmoodzadeh A, Hassanzadeh A, Heidari R, Jamei R. 2009. Antioxidants and antiradicals in almond hull and shell (Amygdalus communis L.) as a function of genotype. Food Chem, 115, 529-533.

Jahanban Isfahlan A, Mahmoodzadeh A, Hassanzadeh A, Heidari R, Jamei R. 2010. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of phenolic extracts from Iranian almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) hulls and shells. Turkish J Biol, 34: 165-173.

Kamkar A, Shariatifar N, Jamshidi AH, Mohammadian M. 2011. Study of Antioxidant Functional of the Water, Methanol, and Ethanol Extracts of Endemic Cuminum cyminum L. and Cardaria draba L. in the In-vitro Systems, pp 38, Ofoghe danesh.

Klich MG. 2000. Leaf variations in Elaeagnus angustifolia related to environmental heterogeneity. Environ Exp Bot, 44: 171-183.

Lu Y, Y Foo. 2000. Antioxidant activities of polyphenols from sage (Salvia officinalis) Food Chem, 75: 197-202.

Makari HK, N. Haraprasad HS, Patil, Ravikumar. 2008. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of The Hexane And Methanolic Extracts Of Cordia Wallichii And Celastrus Paniculata. The Internet J. Aesthetic and Antiaging Medicine, 1: 1-10.

Mamashloo S, Sadeghi Mahoonak A, Ghorbani M, Alami M, Khomeiri M. 2012. The evaluation of antioxidant properties and stability of phenolic copmpounds from medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit. J Food Sci Tech research and innovation, 1: 219-228.

Nishino C, Enoki N, Tawata S, Mori A. 1987. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids against Staphylococ epidermidis, a skin bacterium. Agric Biol Chem, 51: 139-143.

Olukemi OA, Olukemi IO, Oluwatoyin SM, Austin AO, Mansurat LB, Olufunmilola TI. 2005. Antioxidant activity of Nigerian dietary species. Electron. J Environ Agric Food Chem, 4: 1086-1093.

Perry LM. 1980. Medicinal Plants of the East and Southeast Asia. MIT Press. London, 131.

Pfannhauser W, Fenwick GR, Khokhar S. 2001. Biologically active phytochemicals in food. PP. 448-452, Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Sánchez-Moreno C, Cao G, Ou B, Prior RL. 2003. Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry. J Agric Food Chem, 51:4889-4896.

Sanwal M, Trevithick GR. 1982. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophtalmol, 17:61-66.

Schwartz E, Tzulker R, Glazer I, Bar-Ya, akov I, Wiesman Z, Tripler E, Bar-Ilan I, Fromm H, Borochov-    Neori H, Holland D and Amir R. 2009. Environmental Condition Affect the Color, Taste, Antioxidant Capacity of 11 Pomegranate Accessions, Fruits.

J Agric Food Chem, 57: 9197-9209.

Shafroth PB, Auble GT, Scott ML. 1995. Germination and establishment of native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoids Marshall subsp. Monilifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaegnus angustifolia L.). Conserv Biol, 1169-1175.

Shariff ZU. 2001. Modern herbal therapy for common ailmentsSpectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria in Association with Safari Books Ltd. 1: 9-84, Nature Pharamcy Series, UK.

Siriwardhana SSKW, Shahidi F. 2002. Antiradical activity of extracs of almond and its by-products. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 79: 903-908.

Sreedam C D, Kaiser H, Israt Jahan B, 1 2 3 4Shapna Sultana and 5Prof. Saiful Islam MD.2010. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Different Parts of the Plant Diospyros discolor. Res J Agric  Biol Sci, 6: 472-475.

Tanaka M, Kuei CW, Nagashima Y, Taguchi T. 1998. Application of antioxidative maillrad reaction products from  histidine and glucose to sardine products. Nippon Suisan Gakk, 54:1409-1414.

Zargari A. 1990. Medicinal plants. 4: 275-277.Tehran Univercity Press, Tehran.