Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Shefa Neuroscience Research Centre, Tehran, I. R. Iran

2 Institut für Physiologie I, Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurochirurgie, Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Research Center, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany

Abstract

Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases.
 

Keywords


Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G, Owoloye TR, Agbebi OJ. 2013. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin–induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 3: 470-475.

Adetumbi M, Javor GT, Lau BH. 1986. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 30: 499-501.

Adler BB, Beuchat LR. 2002. Death of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in garlic butter as affected by storage temperature. J Food Prot, 65: 1976-1980.

Allison GL, Lowe GM, Rahman K. 2012. Aged garlic extract inhibits platelet activation by increasing intracellular cAMP and reducing the interaction of GPIIb/IIIa receptor with fibrinogen. Life Sci, 91: 1275-1280.

Amagase H, Milner JA. 1993. Impact of various sources of garlic and their constituents on 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene binding to mammary cell DNA. Carcinogenesis, 14: 1627-1631.

Ashraf R, Aamir K, Shaikh AR, Ahmed T. 2005. Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 17: 60-64.

Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkom E, Kohrle U, Lenz A, Mader F, Merx W, Otto G,
Schmid-Oto B, Benheim H. 1989. Hypertonie and Hyperlipidamie: In leichterenauch Knoblauch. Der Allgemeinarzi, 3: 205-208.

Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, Hoehfeld E, Koehrle U, Lorenz A, Mader F, Merx W, Otto G, Schmid-Otto B, et al. 1990. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Suppl, 69: 3-6.

Avicenna A. 1988. Al Qanoon Fil Tib. Translated by Sharafkandi, S. Soroosh Press, IV vol., PP.122-178, Tehran, Iran.

Aviello G, Abenavoli L, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA, Lembo F, Romano B, Capasso F. 2009. Garlic: empiricism or science? Nat Prod Commun, 4: 1785-1796.

Bakhshi M, Taheri JB, Shabestari SB, Tanik A, Pahlevan R. 2012. Comparison of therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of garlic and nystatin mouthwash in denture stomatitis. Gerodontology, 29: e680-684.

Banerjee SK, Maulik SK. 2002. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutr J, 1: 4.

Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. 1989. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) onblood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 58: 257-63.

Borkowska A, Knap N, Antosiewicz J. 2013. Diallyl Trisulfide Is More Cytotoxic to Prostate Cancer Cells PC-3 than to Noncancerous Epithelial Cell Line PNT1A: A Possible Role of p66Shc signaling Axis. Nutr Cancer, 65: 711-717.

Budzynska K, Gardner ZE, Dugoua JJ, Low Dog T, Gardiner P. 2012. Systematic review of breastfeeding and herbs. Breastfeed Med, 7: 489-503.

Cai Y. 1991. Anticryptococcal and antiviral properties of garlic. Cardiol Pract, 9: ll.

Capasso A. 2013. Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L. Molecules, 18: 690-700.

Cavallito CJ, Bailey JH. 1944. Allicin, the antibacterial principle of Allium sativum. I. Isolation, physical properties and antibacterial action. J Am Chem Soc, 66:1950-1951.

Chan JY, Yuen AC, Chan RY, Chan SW. 2013. A review of the cardiovascular benefits and antioxidant properties of allicin. Phytother Res. 27: 637-646.

Chanderkar AG and Jain PK, 1973. Analysis of hypotensive action of Allium sativum (garlic). Ind J Physiol Pharmacol, 17: 132-133.

Colín-González AL, Santana RA, Silva-Islas CA, Chánez-Cárdenas ME, Santamaría A, Maldonado PD. 2012. The antioxidant mechanisms underlying the aged garlic extract- and S-allylcysteine-induced protection. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2012: 907162.

Dahanukar SA and Thatte UM. 1997. Current status of ayurveda in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine, 4: 359-368.

Dannesteter J. 2003. AVESTA: VENDIDAD: Fargard 20: The origins of medicine.Translated from Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, New York, The Christian Literature Company, 1898, [online], Available at www.avesta.org.

Dante G, Pedrielli G, Annessi E, Facchinetti F. 2013. Herb remedies during pregnancy: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 26: 306-312.

Davis SR, Penie R, Apitz-Castro R. 2003.The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob Chemother, 5: 1593-1597.

De Witt JC, Notermans S, Gorin N, Kampelmacher EH. 1979. Effect of garlic oil or onion oil on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in meat slurry. J Food Protect, 42: 222-224.

Delaha EC, Garagusi VF. 1985. Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extracts (Allium sativum). Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 27: 485-486.

Dini C, Fabbri A, Geraci A. 2011. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review. Ann Ist Super Sanita, 47: 465-473.

El-Kott AF. 2012. Amelioration of Nitrate-induced Hepatotoxicity. J Med Sci, 12: 85-91.

Fenwick GR, Hanley AB. 1985. Allium species poisoning. Vet Rec, 116: 28.

Finley JW. 2003. Reduction of cancer risk by consumption of selenium-enriched plants: enrichment of broccoli with selenium increases the anticarcinogenic properties of broccoli. J Med Food. 6: 19-26.

Fromtling RA, Bulmer GS. 1978. In vitro effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) on the growth and viability of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia, 70: 397-405.

Gardner CD, Chattejee LM, Carlson JJ. 2001.  The effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis, 154: 213-220.

Gebhardt R, Beck H. 1996. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte culhue. Lipids, 31: 1269-1276.

Ghannoum MA. 1988. Studies on the anticandidal mode of action of Allium sativum (garlic). J Gen Microbiol, 134: 2917-2924.

Ghannoum MA. 1990. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). J Appl Bacterial, 68: 163-169.

Hitokoto H, Morozumi S, Wauke T, Sakai S, Kurata H. 1980. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol, 39: 818-822.

Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT, Madigan MP, Deng J, Gridley G. Fraumeni JF Jr. 2002. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a populat~onbased study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94: 1648-1651.

Hughes BG, Lawson LD. 1991. Antimicrobial effect of Allium sativum L. (garlic) Allium ampeloprasum (elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L. (onion). garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytol Res, 5: 154-158.

Hughes BG, Murray BK, North JA, Lawson LD. 1989. Antiviral constituents from Allium sativum Pl. Med, 55. 114.

Houshmand B, Mahjour F, Dianat O. 2013. Antibacterial effect of different concentrations of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on dental plaque bacteria. Indian J Dent Res, 24: 71.

Iciek M, Kwiecień I, Włodek L. 2009. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds. Environ Mol Mutagen, 50: 247-265.

Jain RC. 1977. Effect of garlic on serum lipids, coagulability and fibrinolyhc activity of blood. Am J Clin Nutr, 30: 1380-1381.

Jepson RG, Kleijnen J, Leng GC. 2000. Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive
disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2: CD000095.

Jezowa L, Rafinski T, Wrocinski T. 1966. Investigations on the antibiotic activity of Allium sativum L. Herba Pol, 12: 3-13

Johnson MG. Vaughn RH. 1969. Death of Escherichia coli in the presence of freshly reconstituted dehydrated garlic and onion. Appl Microbiol, 17: 903-905.

Jonkers D, Sluimer J, Stobberingh E. 1999. Effect of garlic on vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43: 3045.

Kamanna VS, Chandrasekhara N. 1982. Effect of garlic on serum lipoproteins cholesterol levels in albino rats rendered hypercholesteremic by feeding cholesterol. Lipids, 17: 483-488.

Kandziora J. 1988. Blutdruck- und lipidsenkendeWirkung eines Knoblauch-Preparates in Kombination mit einem Diuretikum (Study 1) [in German]. Aerztliche Forschung, 35: 3-8.

Knowles LM, Milner JA. 2003. Diallyl disulfide induces ERK phosphorylation and alters gene expression profiles in human colon tumor cells. J Nutr, 133: 2901-2906.

König FK, Schneider B. 1986. Knoblauch bessert Durchblutungsstörungen. Ärztliche Praxis, 38: 344-345.

Karuppiah P and Rajaram S. 2012. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2: 597-601.

Kumar R, Chhatwal S, Arora S, Sharma S, Singh J, Singh N, Bhandari V, Khurana A. 2013. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and adenosine deaminase–lowering effects of garlic in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with obesity. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 6: 49-56.

Kweon S, Park KA, Choi H. 2003. Chemopreventive effect of garlic powder diet in diethylnitrosamineinduced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Life Sci, 73: 2515-2526.

Lanzotti V, Barile E, Antignani V, Bonanomi G, Scala F. 2012. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera. Phytochemistry, 78: 126-134.

Lanzotti V. 2006. The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr A, 1112: 3-22.

Lau BH, Woolley JL, Marsh CL, Barker GR, Koobs DH, Torrey RR. 1986. Superiority of intralesional immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and Allium sativum in control of murine transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol, 136: 701-705.

Lawson LD, Bauer R. 1998. Garlic: a review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. In: Phytomedicines of Europe. Chemistry and Biological Activity. Series 69 1, American Chemical Society. Washington DC, 176-209.

Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, De Sousa L, Padilla M, Pulgar M, Apitz-Castro R. 2000.  Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: a double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine. J Am Acad Dermatol, 43: 829-832.

Lemar KM, Turner MP, Lloyd D. 2002. Garlic (Allium sativum) as an anti-Candida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts. J Appl Microbiol, 93: 398-405.

Li M, Ciu JR, Ye Y, Min JM, Zhang LH, Wang K, Gares M, Cros J, Wright M, Leung-Tack J. 2002. Antitumor activity of Z-ajoene, a natural compound purified from garlic: antimitotic and microtubuleinteraction properties. Carcinogenesis, 23: 573-579.

Lin JG, Chen GW, Su CC, Hung CF. 2002. Garlic components diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide on arylamine Nacetyltransferase activity and 2-aminofluorene-DNA adducts in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Am J Chin Med, 30: 315-325.

Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, Cohen M. 2012. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3.

Luley C, Lehmann-Leo W, Moller, B, Martin T, Schwartzkopff  W. 1986. Lack of efficacy of dried garlic in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung 1Drug Res, 36: 766-768.

Lutomski, J. 1984. Klinische Untersuchungen Zur therapeutischen wirksamkeit von llya Rogiff knoblanchpillen mit Rutin. Z Phytotherapia, 5: 938-942.

Meng Y, Lu D, Guo N, Zhang L, Zhou G. 1993. Anti-HCMV effect of garlic components. Virol Sin, 8: 147-150.

Mirhadi SA, Singh S, Gupta PP. 1991. Effect of garlic supplementation to cholesterol-rich diet on development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Ind J Exp Biol, 29: 1621-1668.

Nai-Lan G, Cao-Pei L, Woods GL, Reed E, Gui-Zhen Z, Li-Bi Z, Waldman RH. 1993. Demonstration of antiviral activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro. Chin Med J, 106: 93-96.

Nishino H, Iwashima A, Itakura Y, Matsuura H, Fuwa T. 1989. Antitumorpromoting activity of garlic extracts. Oncology, 46: 277-280.

O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. 2000. Activities of garlic oil, garlic powder, and their diallyl constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66: 2269-2273.

Ohaeri OC. 2001. Effect of garlic oil on the levels of various enzyme in the serum and tissue of streptozotocin diabtic rats. Biosci Rep, 21: 19-24.

Omar SH. 2013. Garlic and Cardiovascular Diseases.  Natural Products: Springer, 3661-3696.

Padiya R and Banerjee SK. 2013. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric, 5: 105-127.

Patten CJ, Thomas PE, Guy RL, Lee M, Gonzalez FJ, Guengerich FP, Yang CS. 1993. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in acetaminophen activation by rat and human liver microsomes and their kinetics. Chem Res Toxicol, 6: 511-518.

Petkov V. 1979. Plants and hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action: Am J Chin Med, 7: 197-236.

Rahman K, Lowe GM. 2006. Significance of garlic and its constituents in cancer and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr, 136: 736S-740S.

Rashid A, Khan HH. 1985. The mechanism of hypotensive effect of garlic extract. J Pak Med Assoc, 35: 357-362.

Rees LP, Minney SF, Plummer NT. 1993. Assessment of the anti-microbial activity of garlic (Allium sativum). World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 9: 303-307.

 Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP. 2013a. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 67: 64-70.

Ried K, Toben C, Fakler P. 2013b. Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis. Nutr Rev, 71: 282-299.

Reuter HD, Koch HP, Lawson LD. 1966. Therapeutic effects and applications of garlic and its preparations. Garlic: The science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and Related Species, Koch, HP and LD Lawson (Eds.). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 135-213.

Rivlrn RS. 1998. Patient with hyperlipidemia who received garlic supplements. Lipid management. Report from the Lipid Education Council, 3: 6-7.

Sharma VD, Sethi MS, Kumar A, Rarotra JR. 1977. Antibacterial property of Allium sativum Linn.: in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol, 15: 466-468.

Sheela CG, Kumud K, Augusti KT. 1995. Anti-diabetic effect of onion and garlic sulfoxide amino acids in rats. Planta Medica, 61:356-7.

Shoji S, Furuishi K, Yanase R, Miyazaka T, Kino M. 1993. Ally1 compounds selectively killed human immunodeficiency virus (type 1)-infected cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 194: 610-621.

Sial AY and Ahmed SJ. 1982. Study of the hypotensive action gerlic extract in experimental animals. J Pak Med Assoc, 32: 237-239.

Soffar SA and  Mokhtar GM. 1991.  Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol, 21: 497-502.

Sparnins VL, Mott AW, Barany G, Wattenberg LW. 1986. Effects of allyl methyl trisulfide on glutathione S-transferase activity and BP-induced neoplasia in the mouse. Nutr Cancer, 8: 211-215.

Stabler SN, Tejani AM, Huynh F, Fowkes C. 2012. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8.

Sumiyoshi H, Wargovich MJ. 1990.  Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-rnduced colon cancer in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds. Cancer Res, 50: 5084-5087.

Szymona  M. 1952. Effect of phytoncides of Allium sativum on growth and respiration of certain pathogenic fungi. Acta Microbiol Pol, 1: 5-23.

Tadi PP, Lau BH, Teel RW, Herrmann CE. 1991a. Binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA inhibited by ajoene and diallyl sulfide. Anticancer Res, 11: 2037-2041.

Tadi PP, Teel RW, Lau BH. 1991b. Organosulfur compounds of garlic modulate mutagenesis, metabolism, and DNA binding of aflatoxin B1. Nutr Cancer, 1537-1595.

Tansey MR and Appleton JA. 1975.  Inhbition of fungal growth by garlic extract. Mycologia, 67: 409-413.

Tatarintsev AV, Vrzhets PV, Ershov DE, Shchegolev AA, Turgiev AS, Karamov EV, Kornilaeva GV, Makarova TV, Fedorov NA, Varfolomeev SD. 1992. The ajoene blockade of integrin-dependent processes in an HIV-infected cell system. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk, ll-12: 6-10.

Tsai Y, Cole LL, Davis LE, Lockwood SJ, Simmons V, Wild GC. 1985. Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects on influenza B, herpes simplex and coxsackie viruses. Planta Med, 5: 460-461.

Tsubura A, Lai YC, Kuwata M, Uehara N, Yoshizawa K. 2011. Anticancer effects of garlic and garlic-derived compounds for breast cancer control. Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 11: 249-253.

Wang HC, Pao J, Lin SY, Sheen LY. 2012. Molecular mechanisms of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in the inhibition of skin cancer progression. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1271: 44-52.

Wallace IV GC, Haar CP, Vandergrift WA 3rd, Giglio P, Dixon-Mah YN, Varma AK, Ray SK, Patel SJ, Banik NL, Das A. 2013. Multi-targeted DATS prevents tumor progression and promotes apoptosis in ectopic glioblastoma xenografts in SCID mice via HDAC inhibition. J Neurooncol, 114: 43-50.

Wargovich MJ, Woods C, Eng VW, Stephens LC, Gray K. 1988. Chemoprevention of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats by the naturally occurring thioether, diallyl sulfide. Cancer Res, 48: 6872-6875.

Wattenberg LW, Sparnins VL, Barany G. 1989. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes. Cancer Res, 49: 2689-2692.

Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA. Murray BK, Lawson LD, Hughes BG. 1992. In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med, 58: 417-423.

Wills E. 1956. Enzyme inhibition by allicin, the active principle of garlic. Biochem J, 63: 514-520.

Yang J, Wang T, Yang J, Rao K, Zhan Y, Chen RB, Liu Z, Li MC, Zhuan L, ZangGH, Guo SM, Xu H, Wang SG, Liu JH, Ye ZQ. 2013. S‐allyl cysteine restores erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in diabetic rats. Andrology, 487-494.

Yoshida S, Kasuga S, Hayashi N, Ushiroguchi T, Matsuura H, Nakagawa S. 1987.  Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic. Appl Environ Microbiol, 53: 615-617.

Yu-Yan Y and Liu L. 2001. Cholesterol lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: Human and animal studies. J Nutr, 131: 989- 993.

Yousuf S, Ahmad A, Khan A, Manzoor N, Khan LA. 2011. Effect of garlic-derived
allyl sulphides on morphogenesis and hydrolytic enzyme secretion in Candida
albicans. Med Mycol, 49: 444-448.

Zain al-abdeen SS, Abdullah IT, Al-Salihi SS. 2013. The synergism effect of aqueous garlic extract and ciprofloxacin against some multi-resistant bacteria. J Microbiol Biotech Res, 3: 136-142.

Zeng T, Zhang CL, Zhao XL, Xie KQ. 2013. The roles of garlic on the lipid parameters: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 53: 215-230.

Ziaei S, Hantoshzadeh S, Rezasoltani  P, Lamyian M. 2001. The effect of garlic tablet on plasma lipids and platelet aggregation in nulliparous pregnants at high risk of preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 99: 201-206.