Document Type: Original Research Article
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Objective: Acantholimon is a genus of perennial plant within the Plumbaginaceae family. Here, we aimed to investigate anticancer, antioxidant, and antibacterial potential of methanol extract of three Iranian endemic species of Acantholimon including A. austro-iranicum, A. serotinum and A. chlorostegium.
Materials and Methods: MTT assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction was examined by annexin V-PE apoptosis detection kit. Antioxidant activity was reported based on the DPPH-scavenging and DCF-DA assay. Antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assay.
Results: MTT assay showed less cytotoxicity of methanol extracts against the HUVEC normal cell line (IC50 values: 817-900 µg/ml) compared to cancer cell lines MCF-7, HT29, SH-SY5Y, NCCIT and A549 (IC50 values: 213 to 600 µg/ml) that show the specificity of extracts toward cancer cells. Plant extract showed apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phases documented by annexin V staining and flow cytometry. According to antioxidant tests, extracts exhibited significant DPPH scavenging potential (IC50 values: 30-37 µg/ml) and could protect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Antibacterial activities showed a stronger inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Gram- negative bacteria (diameter of inhibition zone: 11-13 mm and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC): 3.175 to 12.5 mg/ml) compared to Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (diameter of inhibition zone: 3-7 mm and MIC: 25 to 50 mg/ml).
Conclusion: Our results suggested moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial potential and noteworthy antioxidant activity for the examined Acantholimon species.