Phytochemical, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of stembark extract and fractions of Lonchocarpus sericeus Poir. (Papilionaceae) in albino mice

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemistry, College of Physical and Applied Sciences,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

3 Department of Chemistry, College of Physical and Applied Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

Objective: Lonchocarpus sericeusstembark decoction has been extensively employed in folkloric medicine in many parts of Nigeria as a remedy for pain as well as inflammation. The plant was studied for its anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic potency using standard biological models.
Materials and Methods: The stembark of L. sericeus was evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties using egg albumin and xylene-induced oedema models. The pain-relieving property was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and thermally-induced pain models. Median lethal dose determination (intraperitoneal LD50), quantification of some phytochemicals as well as phytochemical screening were also performed.
Results: The LD50 of stembark extract of L. sericeus was found to be 3,100 mg/kg (i. p). The crude extract and fractions (310-930 mg/kg) effectively reduced oedema caused by egg albumin and xylene and exhibited high analgesic properties in inhibiting pain induced by acetic acid and heat. These reductions were dose-dependent and statistically significant (p<0.05-0.001) when compared to distilled water and similar to prototype drugs employed. Quantitative determinations of some bio-active constituents of the plant showed a higher flavonoid content (0.52±0.02 mg/100 g) compared to alkaloids (0.36±0.02 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (0.49±0.03 mg/100 g). Phytochemical screening of the stembark showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids terpenes, tannins and saponins.
Conclusion: These  results  imply  that  the stembark  extract  of L. sericeus  possesses anti-inflammatory  and analgesic potency and these data validate its  wide use  in folkloric medicine for inflammation and pain management.

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