Document Type: Original Research Article
Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua. P.O. Box 55 Maroua, Cameroun
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
Department of Animal Biology, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maroua, Cameroon
Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Animal Physiology and Phytopharmacology Laboratory, University of Dschang, P.O. BOX 67, Dschang, Cameroon.
Objective: Guiera senegalensis is distributed in the Sudano-Sahelian zone and used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to assess the hypoglycemic effects of G. senegalensis in Wistar diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried out on aqueous and methanolic extracts of G. senegalensis. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male rats using nicotinamide/streptozotocin (65 mg/kg/110 mg/kg, i.p.). After diabetes induction, normal and negative control groups received distilled water, positive control group received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) and the others group received aqueous and methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg, each) orally for 4 weeks. Glycaemia, body weight, insulin level, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) activities, urea and creatinine (Cr) were evaluated.
Results: The content of phenols, flavonoids and tannins were 34.54 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/gE, 4.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/gE and 16.81 mg catechin equivalent (EC)/gE in the aqueous extract, respectively. Phenol (26.01 mg GAE/gE), flavonoid (4.47 mg QE/gE) and tannin (7.67 mg EC/gE) contents were also obtained for the methanolic extract. G. senegalensis and glibenclamide resulted in a significant increase (p<0.001) in body weight and HDL-c in diabetic group rats receiving glibenclamide and different doses of extracts. . The level of insulin, glycaemia, TG, TC, LDL-c, urea and creatinine significantly decreased (p<0.05 to 0.001) in diabetic animals treated with G. senegalensis extracts.
Conclusion: These results confirm the potential of G. senegalensis for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.