Evaluation of phytochemical and pharmacological properties of seeds of Momordica charantia

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacy, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

2 Department of Pharmacy, Southern University, Chittagong, Bangladesh

3 Department of Pharmacy University of Chittagong

4 Department of Botany, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331

5 Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

6 Department of Botany, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

7 Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur-3814, Noakhali, Bangladesh

8 Department of Pharmacy, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh-1902, Tangail

9 Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814,Bangladesh

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the in vivo (analgesic, antidiarrheal, neurological, and cytotoxic) and in vitro (antioxidant, antimicrobial, thrombolytic and anthelmintic) activity of different fractions of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia.
Materials and Methods: The antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, while antimicrobial activity was examined against three Gram (+) and one Gram (-) bacteria. Thrombolytic and anthelmintic activities were evaluated by using human blood serum and by recording paralysis and death time in earthworm, respectively. Cytotoxic activity was investigated in brine shrimp nauplii. Analgesic and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated in Swiss albino mice and neurological effect was evaluated by open field and Elevated plus-maze test (EPM).
Results: All fractions (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) possess significant (p<0.05) cytotoxic activity. In case of thrombolytic activity, the highest concentration of methanolic extract produced a remarkable percentage of clot lysis (46.12%). The concentration of 1000 μg/ml produced a significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative E. coli. Aqueous fraction at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, was found to show promising analgesic activity. In case of antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity, plant extract showed dose-dependent activity. Methanolic extract and its fractions failed to produce any neurological effect in both methods.
Conclusion: The overall results of the study tend to suggest that the methanolic extract and its fractions have promising pharmacological activities.

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