Document Type: Review Article
Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of community and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Objective: Methamphetamine (METH) increases dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations in the synapses, and can induce hyperactivity. The current management of acute METH poisoning relies on supportive care, while no specific antidote is available for treatment. Because of Herbal-based drugs properties, we reviewed the role of them in the treatment of the METH adverse effects.
Materials and Methods: We performed a non-systematic literature review from several databases including Scopus, PubMed and EMBASE.
Results: Ginseng reduced the methamphetamine induced hyperactivity, conditioned place preference, neurological disorder and reversed the tolerance to METH in animal models. Garcinia kola reduced METH-induced hepato-toxicity and raised METH lethal dose and restored the METH-impaired cognitive function in animals. Repeated administration of baicalein resulted in attenuation of acute binge METH-induced amnesia via dopamine receptors. Sauchinone reduced METH-induced nitric oxide synthesis, MICPP and MIH dose dependently; and dopaminergic nerve degeneration. Activation of extracellular-regulated kinase in hypothalamus by Levo-tetrahydropalmatine resulted in attenuation of the all aspects of MICPP and MIH. Pretreatment of animals by l-stepholidine blocked the expression of MICPP but failed to reduce acute MIH. We also reviewed effects of some other herbal compounds; such as hispidulin, silymarin, limonene, resveratrol, chlorogenic acid and barakol; on METH adverse effects.
Conclusion: Based on current in vitro and in vivo findings, some natural products such as ginseng and levo-tetrahydropalmatine are promising candidates for treatment of the methamphetamine abuse and toxicity. However, clinical trials are needed to prove these finding.