Effects of aqueous extract of Hyssopus officinalis on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and hippocampus mRNA level of iNOS in rats

Document Type: Short communication

Authors

1 Neuroscience Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

2 Department of Physiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

3 Student Research Committee, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

4 Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

5 Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

6 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Abstract

Objective: We examined the effectiveness of Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) aqueous extract on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute seizures and the hippocampus iNOS (induciblenitric oxide synthases) gene expression as a potential mediator of the effects.
Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were used. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of PTZ (80 mg/kg) then behavioral profile during 30 min was characterized by stages defined as seizure scores. Hyssop extract were prepared and injected (i.p.) 15 minutes before the seizure induction at three doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Experimental groups were as below: (1) saline+PTZ (n=5); (2) Hyssop 50mg/kg+PTZ (n=10); (3) Hyssop 100mg/kg+PTZ (n=10); (4) Hyssop 200 mg/kg+PTZ (n=8). Two hours after the experimental procedure, all ani­mals were decapitated, brain was removed and right hippocampus was quickly dissected. After total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis quantitative PCR were used for gene expression of iNOS.
Results: Our results showed significant increase (p<0.05) in latency to reach stages 5 and 6 of tonic-clonic seizure at dose 100 mg/kg hyssop extract. In addition, this dose caused significant increase in the gene expression of iNOS in the hippocampus.
Conclusion: It seems a 100 mg/kg dose of hyssop extract might have anticonvulsant effects. However, these anticonvulsant effects might not occur through the iNOS gene expression.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Ahmadi A, Sayyah M, Khoshkholgh-Sima B, Choopani S, Kazemi J, Sadegh M, Moradpour F, Nahrevanian H. 2013. Intra-hippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibits kindled seizures and retards kindling rate in adult rats. Exp Brain Res, 226: 107-120.

Auditeau E, Moyano L, Bourdy G, Nizard M, Jost J, Ratsimbazafy V, Preux P, Boumediene F. 2018. Herbal medicine uses to treat people with epilepsy: A survey in rural communities of northern Peru. J Ethnopharmacol, 215: 184-190.

Banach M, Piskorska B, Czuczwar S, Borowicz K. 2011. Nitric oxide, epileptic seizures, and action of antiepileptic drugs. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 10: 808-819.

Byun J, Lee S, Jeon S, Kwon Y, Lee H, Kim S, Kim Y, Kim M, Chun W. 2009. Kainic acid-induced neuronal death is attenuated by aminoguanidine but aggravated by L-NAME in mouse hippocampus. Korean J Physio Pharma, 13: 265-271.

De Almeida ER, Rafael KR, Couto GB, Ishigami AB. 2009. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects on mice of flavonoids, linalool, and alpha-tocopherol presents in the extract of leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae). J Biomed Biotechnol, 2009: 274740.

Elisabetsky E, Brum L, Souza D. 1999. Anticonvulsant properties of linalool in glutamate-related seizure models. Phytomedicine, 6: 107-113.

Frazer CJ, Christensen H, Griffiths KM. 2005. Effectiveness of treatments for depression in older people. Med J Aust, 182: 627-632.

Gonzalez-Hernandez T, Garcia-Marin V, Perez-Delgado M, Gonzalez-Gonzalez M, Rancel-Torres N, Gonzalez-Feria L. 2000. Nitric oxide synthase expression in the cerebral cortex of patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia, 41: 1259-1268.

Hold KM, Sirisoma NS, Sparks SE, Casida JE. 2002. Metabolism and mode of action of cis- and trans-3-pinanones (the active ingredients of hyssop oil). Xenobiotica, 32: 251-265.

Javadi B, Sahebkar A, Emami S. 2017. Medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma: A traditional Persian medicine perspective. Curr Pharm Des, 23: 1623-1632.

Li J, O W, Li W, Jiang ZG, Ghanbari HA. 2013. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Mol Sci, 14: 24438-24475.

Löscher W. 2011. Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Seizure, 20: 359-368.

Luttjohann A, Fabene PF, Van Luijtelaar G. 2009. A revised Racine's scale for PTZ-induced seizures in rats. Physiol Behav, 98: 579-586.

Ma X, Ma X, Ma Z, Sun Z, Yu W, Wang J, Li F, Ding J. 2014. The effects of uygur herb Hyssopus officinalis L. on the process of airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. Evid Based Comple Alter Med, 2014.

Mazzio E, Deiab S, Park K, Soliman KF. 2013. High throughput screening to identify natural human monoamine oxidase B inhibitors. Phytother Res, 27: 818-28.

Millet Y, Jouglard J, Steinmetz Md, Tognetti P, Joanny P, Arditti J. 1981. Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study. Clin Toxicol, 18: 1485-1498.

Millet Y, Tognetti P, Lavaire-Perlovisi M, Steinmetz Md, Arditti J, Jouglard J. 1979. [Experimental study of the toxic convulsant properties of commercial preparations of essences of sage and hyssop (author's transl)]. Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin, 9: 8-12.

Miyazaki H, Matsuura H, Yanagiya C, Mizutani J, Tsuji M, Ishihara C. 2003. Inhibitory effects of Hyssop (Hyssopus of ficinalis) extracts on intestinal α-glncosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Sci Vitamin, 49: 346-349.

Murashima Y, Yoshii M, Suzuki J. 2000. Role of nitric oxide in the epileptogenesis of EL mice. Epilepsia, 41 Suppl 6: S195-S199.

Ngugi A, Bottomley C, Kleinschmidt I, Sander J, Newton C. 2010. Estimation of the burden of active and life-time epilepsy: a meta-analytic approach. Epilepsia, 51: 883-890.

Özer H, Şahin F, Kılıç H, Güllüce M. 2005. Essential oil composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. angustifolius (Bieb.) Arcangeli from Turkey. Flavo Frag J, 20: 42-44.

Park K, Reuben J, Soliman K. 2001. The role of inducible-nitric oxide in cocaine-induced kindling. Exper Bio Med, 226: 185-190.

Peana A, Marzocco S, Popolo A, Pinto A. 2006. (-)-Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound. Life Sci, 78: 719-723.

Rutkowski R, Pancewicz S, Rutkowski K, Rutkowska J. 2007. [Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in inflammatory process]. Pol Merkur Lekarski, 23: 131-136.

Sadegh M, Sakhaie M. 2018. Carvacrol mitigates proconvulsive effects of lipopolysaccharide, possibly through the hippocampal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Metab Brain Dis, 33: 2045-2050.

Schmidt D, Schachter S. 2014. Drug treatment of epilepsy in adults. BMJ, 348: 354.

Shin E, Jeong J, Chung Y, Kim W, Ko K, Bach J, Hong J, Yoneda Y, Kim H. 2011. Role of oxidative stress in epileptic seizures. Neurochem Inter, 59: 122-137.

Sucher N, Carles M. 2015. A pharmacological basis of herbal medicines for epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav, 52: 308-318.

Theodore W & Fisher R. 2004. Brain stimulation for epilepsy. Lancet Neurol, 3: 111-118.

Tolou-Ghamari Z, Zare M, Habibabadi J, Najafi M. 2013. Antiepileptic drugs: a consideration of clinical and biochemical outcome in patients with epilepsy. Inter J Preven Med, 4: S330-S337.

Vezzani A, French J, Bartfai T, Baram T. 2011. The role of inflammation in epilepsy. Nature reviews. Neurol, 7: 31-40.

Wasowski C, Marder M. 2012. Flavonoids as GABAA receptor ligands: the whole story? J Exp Pharmacol, 4: 9-24.

Wlodarczyk B, Palacios A, George T, Finnell R. 2012. Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy outcomes. Ameri J Med Gen. Part A, 158A: 2071-2090.

Zareie P, Sadegh M, Palizvan M, Moradi-Chameh H. 2018. Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures. Metab Brain Dis, 33: 939-948.