Antimalarial activity of extract and fractions of Castanopsis costata (Blume) A.DC

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University

2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Parasitology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pharmacology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

4 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, West Java, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: One of the biggest health problems in the world, which occurs in more than 90 countries, is the spread of malaria. Cep-cepan leaves (Castanopsis  costata), was empirically used as an antimalarial herb in North Sumatra. Since its use has not been scientifically studied, we investigated the antimalarial activity of extract and fractions of C. costata against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) in a mouse model.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using 32 male Balb/C mice. PbA inoculation was performed intraperitoneally with 106 parasites/mouse. Immediately after parasitemia reach >2% (day 0), the mice were treated orally with daily artesunate (36.4 mg/kg/day) (positive control), ethanolic extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day), and the fractions of water, ethyl acetate and n-hexane (108 mg/kg/day each) for 5 consecutive days (from day 0 to 4). Parasitemia inhibition was observed to determine the antimalarial activity of each type of C. costata extract and fractions.
Results: The administration of C. costata leaves ethanolic extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the growth of PbA in Balb/C mice (42.66%, 66.2 1% and 80.99 % inhibition, respectively) (p<0.05). Similarly, all C. costata fractions also produced antimalarial activity against PbA with administration of the ethyl acetate fraction presenting the highest activity (79.85 % inhibition).
Conclusion: The C. costata leaves showed antimalarial activity against PbA. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this effect and the active compounds involved. Our current study revealed that C.costata could be a potential candidate to be used as a new antimalarial drug.

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