Histomorphological effects of the oil extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum seed on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult Wistar rats

Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

3 Department of Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Remo Campus, Ogun State, Nigeria

4 Department of Anatomic and Molecular Pathology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Nigeria


benefits due to its very potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Despite its widespread use, it has not been validated for use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was conducted to examine histomorphological effects of SJ seed on BPH that usually causes bladder outlet obstruction.
Materials and Methods: There were a total of six groups of animals each comprising 5 adult male rats. Apart from group 1 (normal control), in the remaining five groups, BPH was induced. Group 2 (negative control) was sacrificed immediately after BPH induction; groups 3 and 4 received the extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg respectively by gavages for thirty days; group 5 received finasteride (0.1 mg/kg) for thirty days and group 6 received the extract (600 mg/kg) simultaneously with the steroid administration for thirty days. The animals’ were weighed before the experiment and subsequently every three days until the end of the study.
Results: The extract caused marked decrease in prostate weight of rats with BPH with histo-morphology of the tissue showing degenerated stromal and epithelial cells with few epithelial involutions of glandular tissue. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) level as well as testosterone level significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the treated groups compared to negative control.  BPH animals treated with extract/finasteride exhibited remarkable increases in anti-oxidant enzymes level with concurrent decreases in peroxidative activity.
Conclusion: SJ effectively ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia in BPH animals causing marked degenerative changes in prostate stromal and epithelial cells and also exhibited marked anti-oxidant effect.


Main Subjects

Afriyie DK, Asare GA, Bugyei K, Adjei S, Lin J, Peng J, Hong Z. 2014. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with Croton membranaceus in an experimental animal model.  J Ethnopharmacol, 157: 90–98.  http://dx.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.007.

Almushatat ASK, Talwar D, McArdle PA, Williamson C, Sattar N, O’Reiliy DS, Underwood MA, McMillian DC. 2006. Vitamin antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and the systemic inflammatory response in patients with prostate cancer. Int J Cancer, 118: 1051 -1053.

Aryal M, Pandeya A, Gautam N, Baral N, Lamsal M. 2007. Stress in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  NapalColl J, 9: 222-224.

 Aydin A, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Sayal A, Eken A, Erdem O, Erten K, Ozök Y, Dimovski A. 2006. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in non-metastatic prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. ClinBiochem, 39: 176-179.

Bhargava S, Canda AE, Chapple CR. 2004. A rational approach to benign prostate hyperplasia evaluation: recent advance. CurrOpinUrol, 14: 1–6.

Carbajal D, Arruzazabala M de L, Rosa M, Molina V, Rodríguez  E, González V. 2004. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy induced with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in a rat model: A randomized, controlled study. CurrTher Res ClinExp, 65(6): 505-14.

Carson CI, Rittmaster R. 2003. The role of dihydrotestosterone in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol, 61: 2–7.

Dabbs M, Dabbs JM. 2000. Heroes, rogues, and lovers: testosterone and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dalziel JM. 1995. In: The useful plants of West Africa. Crown agents for overseas governments and administration, pp. 15. London.

Ekins RH. 1990. Free and bound testosterone. Ann ClinBiochem, 27: 91–4.

Gravas S, Oelke M. 2010. Current status of 5α-reductase inhibitors in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and BPH. World J Urol, 28:9–15.

Guyton and Hall. 2000. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th Ed, W.B. Saunders Company,pp. 942.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. 1985. Free radicals and toxicology. Free Rad Biol 8(2): 1-85.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR). 1999. Commission on life science. Washington: National Academy Press; Available from:  http:// www.nap.edu/ catalog/5140.html.

Iwu MM. 1993. Handbook of African medicinal plants, pp. 239.  CRC Press Inc.Lawson RK. 1986. The natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. AUA Update, Series. 5: Lesson 19.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. 1984. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indian J BiochemBiophys, 21:130–2.

Marcus GJ, Dumford. 1985. A simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for testosterone. Steroids, 46: 975–86.

Mbaka G, Anunobi C, Ogunsina S, Osiagwu D. 2017. Histomorphological changes in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with exogenous testosterone and estradiol in adult male rats treated with aqueous ethanol extract of Secamone afzelii. Egyp J Basic Applied Sc, 4: 15–21.

Mbaka GO, Ogbonnia SO, Olarewaju OT, Duru FI. 2013. The effects of ethanol seed extract of Raphia hookeri (Palmaceae) on exogenous testosterone and estradiol induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult male rats. J MorpholSci, 30: 235–43.

Mbaka GO, Owolabi MA. 2011. Evaluation of haematinic activity and subchronic toxicity of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (Menispermaceae) seed oil. Eur J Med Plants, 1: 140-152.

McPartland JM, Pruitt PL. 2000. Benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with saw palmetto: a literature search and an experimental case study. J Am Osteopath Assoc, 100: 89-96.

Moody JO, Robert VA, Connolly JD, Houghton PJ. 2006. Anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extracts and an isolated furanoditerpene constituent of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre (Menispermaceae). J Ethnopharmacol, 104(1): 87-91.

Muko KN, Ohiri PC, Ezegwu CO. 1998. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of Sphenocentrum jollyanum. Nig J Nat Prod Med, 2: 52-53.

Nandecha C, Nahata A, Dixit VK. 2010. Effect of Benincasa hispida fruits on testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats. CurrTher Res ClinExp, 71: 331–343.

Naslund MJ, Gilsenan AW, Midkiff KD, Bown A, Wolford ET, Wang J. 2007. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement in the primary care setting. Int J ClinPract, 61: 1437- 1445.

Nelson RJ. 2006. An introduction to    behavioral endocrinology. Sunderland, Mass; Sinauer Associates Edition, pp.143.

Nia R, Paper DH, Essien EE, Lyadi KC, Bassey AIL, Antai AB, Franz G. 2004. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant and anti-angiogenic effects of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre. AfrJ Biomed Res, 7: 129-132.

Odugbemi T. 2006. Outlines and Pictures of Medicinal Plants in Nigeria, pp. 55-71. University of Lagos Press, Nigeria.

Öesterling JE, Cooner WH, Jacobsen SJ, Guess HA, Lieber MM. 1993. Influence of patient age on the serum PSA concentration. An important clinical observation. UrolClin N Am, 20: 671-680.

Pais P. 2010. Potency of a novel saw palmetto extract, SPET-85, for inhibition of 5α-reductase. AdvTher, 27: 555-563.

Pentikäinen V, Erkkilä K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L. 2006. Estradiol Acts as a Germ Cell Survival Factor in the Human Testis in vitro. J Clin Endocr Metabol, 85:2057-67.

Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y. 2008. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino rats. Asian J Androl, 10: 313–8.

Roehrborn CG. 2011. Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Med Clin North Am, 95(1): 87-100.

Roehrborn CG. 2001. The epidemiology of acute urinary retention in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Rev Urol, 3: 187–192.

Roehrborn CG, Rosen RC. 2008. Medical therapy options for aging men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: focus on alfuzosin 10 mg once daily. ClinInterv Aging, 3: 511–24.

Rukkumani R, Aruna K, Varma PS, Rajasekaran KN, Menon VP. 2004. Comparative effects of curcumin and analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress. J Pharm Sci, 7: 274–83.

Russell DW, Wilson JD. 1994. Steroid 5α-reductase: two genes/two enzymes. Annu Rev ClinBiochem, 63: 25–61.

Strauch G, Perles P, Vergult G, Gabriel M, Gibelin B, Cummings S, Malbecq W, Malice MP. 1994. Comparison of Finasteride (Proscar®) and Seronoa repens (Permixon®) in the inhibition of 5α-reductase in healthy male volunteers. EurUrol, 26: 247-252.

Tsai YS, Tong YC, Cheng JT, Lee CH, Yang FS, Lee HY. 2006. Pumpkin Seed Oil and Phytosterol-F Can Block Testosterone/Prazosin-Induced Prostate Growth in Rats.UrolInt, 77 (3), 269-274.

Veeresh BSV, Veeresh B, Patill AA, Warke YB. 2010. Lauric acid and myristic acid prevent testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Euro J Pharmacol, 625: 262–265.

Wong YC, Wang YZ. 2000. Growth factors and epithelial-stromal interactions in prostate cancer development. Inter Rev Cytol, 199: 65-116.

Zhao H, Ramos CF, Brooks JD, Peehl DM. 2007. Distinctive gene expression of prostatic stromal cells cultured from diseased versus normal tissues. J Cell Physiol, 210(1): 111–121.