The preventive effect of Brassica napus L. oil on pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in experimental asthmatic rat

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, I. R. Iran

2 Applied Physiology Research Centre and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I. R. Iran

Abstract

Objective: Asthma is an airway complex disease defined by reversible airway narrowing and obstruction, chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and tissue remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Brassica napus L. (B. napus) on airway pathologic changes in a rat model of asthma.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: control, asthmatic, asthmatic treated with 0.5 mg/kg B. napus oil, and asthmatic treated with 0.75 mg/kg B. napus oil. To induce the experimental asthma, rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 received an i.p. injection of ovalbumin and aerosolized ovalbumin. Simultaneously, rats in groups 3 and 4 received B. napus oil daily by gavage. After 31 days, in all groups, thoracotomy was done and lung tissue samples were taken. For pathological evaluation, microscopic slides were prepared. The eosinophil numbers in the submucosal layer and thicknesses of smooth muscle layer of bronchioles were detected. 
Results: Eosinophil numbers in the submucosal layer, as well as smooth muscle layer thicknesses were significantly lower in the rat group treated with 0.75 mg/kg B. napus oil as compared with asthmatic group (p<0.01, p<0.05).
Conclusion: B. napus could be useful as adjuvant therapy in rat model of asthma. This effect was probably related to its antioxidants componentsthat reduce the levels of inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13.

Keywords


Boskabady MH, Amery S, Vahedi N, Khakzad MR. 2011. The effect of vitamin E on tracheal responsiveness and lung inflammation in sulfur mustard exposed guinea pigs. Inhal Toxicol, 23: 157-165.

Broughton KS, Johnson CS, Pace BK, Liebman M, Kleppinger KM. 1997. Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production. Am J Clin Nutr, 65: 1011-1017.

Charavaryamath C, Janardhan KS, Townsend HG, Willson P, Singh B. 2005. Multiple exposures to swine barn air induce lung inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness. Respir Res, 6:50.

Cohn L, Elias JA, Chupp GL. 2004. Asthma: mechanisms of disease persistence and progression.Annu Rev Immunol, 22: 789-815.

Fritsche S, Wang X, Li J, Stich B, Kopisch-Obuch FJ, Endrigkeit J, Leckband G, Dreyer F, Friedt W, Meng J, Jung C. 2012. A Candidate Gene-Based Association Study of Tocopherol Content and Composition in Rapeseed (Brassica napus). Front Plant Sci, 3: 129.

Hakim A, Adcock IM, Usmani OS. 2012. Corticosteroid resistance and novel anti-inflammatory therapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current evidence and future direction. Drugs, 72: 1299-312.

Halwani R, Al-Muhsen S, Hamid Q. 2010. Airway remodeling in asthma. Current Curr Opin Pharmacol, 10: 236-245.

Hashimoto A, Katagiri M, ToriiS, Dainaka J, Ichikawa A, Okuyama H.1988. Effect of dietary α-linolenate/linoleate balance on leukotriene production and histamine release in rats. Prostaglandins, 36: 3-16.

Higashi A, Kumlin M, Higashi N, Daham K, Gaber F, Lindeberg A, James A, Skedinger M, Delin I, Gyllfors P, Dahlén SE, Dahlén B. 2012. Challenge of isolated sputum cells supports in vivo origin of intolerance reaction to aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 158: 299-306.

Horie S, Okuda C, Yamashita T, Watanabe K, Kuramochi K, Hosokawa M, Takeuchi T, Kakuda M, Miyashita K, Sugawara F, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y. 2010. Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response. Lipids, 45:713-721.

Jiang Q, Amesb N. 2003. γ-Tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB J, 17: 816-822.

Li-Weber M, Giaisi M, Treiber MK, Krammer PH. 2002. Vitamin E inhibits IL-4 gene expression in peripheral blood T cells. Eur J Immunol, 32: 2401-2408.

Ma Y, Ma AG, Peng Z. 2007. A potential immunotherapy approach: Mucosal immunization with an IL-13 peptide-based virus-like particle vaccine in a mouse asthma model. Vaccine, 25: 8091-8099.

Martin JG, Tamaoka M. 2006. Rat models of asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulm Pharmacol Ther, 19: 377-385.

Murdoch JR, Lloyd CM. 2010. Chronic inflammation and asthma. Mutat Res, 690: 24-39.

Park HS, Kim SR, Kim JO, Lee YC. 2010. The Roles of Phytochemicals in Bronchial Asthma. Molecules, 15: 6810-6834.

Ram A, Mabalirajan U, Singh SK, Singh VP, Ghosh B. 2008. Mepacrine alleviates airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Int Immunopharmacol, 8: 893-899.

Randolph DA, Stephens R, Carruthers CJL. 1999. Cooperation between Th1 and Th2 cells in a murine model of eosinophilic airway inflammation. J Clin Invest, 104: 1021-1029.

Sagols E, Priymenko N. 2011. Oxidative Stress in Dog with Heart Failure: The Role of Dietary Fatty Acids and Antioxidants. Vet Med Int, 6:180206.

Scheerens J, van Gessel SBE, Nijkamp FP, Folkerts G. 2002. Eotaxin protein levels and airway pathology in a mouse model for allergic asthma. Eur J Pharmacol, 453: 111-117.

Schuster M, Tschernig T, Krug N, Pabst R. 2000. Lymphocytes migrate from the blood into the bronchoalveolar lavage and lung parenchyma in the asthma model of the brown Norway rat. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 161: 558-566.

Simopoulos AP. 2009. The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascula Disease and Other Chronic Diseases. 2008. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 233: 674-688.

Szelenyi I. 2000. Animal models of bronchial asthma. Inflamm. Res, 49: 639-654.

Von Hertzen LC, Haahtela T. 2000. could the risk of asthma and atopy is reduced by a vaccine that induces a strong T-helper type 1 response? (See comments). Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 22: 139-142.

Xue Z, Yu W, Liu Z, Wu M, Kou X, Wang J. 2009. Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed (Brassica napus) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions. J Agric Food Chem, 57:5287-5293.