Effects of fresh, aged and cooked garlic extracts on short- and long-term memory in diabetic rats

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Physiology Research Center (PRC), Medicinal Plant Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, I.R. Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Izeh branch, Khouzestan, I.R. Iran

3 Department of Physiology, Medicine Faculty, Physiology Research Center (PRC), Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, I.R. Iran

4 Department of Pharmacology, Medicine Faculty, Physiology Research Center (PRC), Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, I.R. Iran

5 Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, I.R. Iran

Abstract

Objective: The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of fresh, aged, and cooked garlic extracts on blood glucose and memory of diabetic rats induced by streptozocine (STZ).
Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg of each garlic extract was given daily for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Five days after STZ injection, five groups were formed: Control (intact) rats (Cont) + Vehicle of garlic extract (normal saline) (Veh), STZ + Veh, STZ + Fresh (row) garlic (FG), STZ + Aged garlic (AG), and STZ + cooked (boiled) garlic (CG). In order to assess the passive avoidance memory, rats were gently placed on the wooden platform, and latency to step-down (SDL) was recorded as initial phase, after then a light electrical shock [0.3 mA, 3 sec, Alternative current (AC)] was delivered to their foot paw. The retrieval tests were done for short- and long-term memories, respectively. Blood glucose was assayed by glucometer before and after treatment with STZ and garlic extracts.
Results: Hyperglycemia induced by STZ decreased short-term memory in both diabetic males and females rats significantly compared with the controls (pConclusions: STZ causes elevation of the blood glucose and resulted in memory deficits, possibly viafree radicals production in brain tissue. Garlic has some bioactive chemicals including allicin and sulfur compound (OSC) which could lower the blood glucose during chronic hyperglycemia, inhibit free radicals production in brain, and improve short-term (but not long-term) memory.
 

Keywords


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